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1913 Murder of Ada James, Narroways Hill, Bristol
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Image by brizzle born and bred[1]
image: A very faded rare photograph of Ada James taken two weeks before she had her throat cut from ear to ear with a razor. Narroways Hill, St Werburgh s is where Ada James met her grisly fate of having her throat slit with a razor by her fianc in 1913. Suffering a mortal wound, she managed to drag herself across a stile, and covered a distance of 500 yards before collapsing at the corner of Lydmouth road.

Edward Henry Palmer Hanged for the Murder of Ada James February 19th, 1913.

Narroways Hill is situated between Eastville and Montpelier Bristol. Work over for the day, the girls spilled out of the nail and button factory in St James Square. Hurrying home among them was 22-year-old Ada James, her destination Clark s Buildings, Union Road, St Philip s. She and her brother Alfred were due to attend the Bible Class tea at the Shaftesbury Crusade. The date was January 27th, 1913.

Plump, dark-haired Ada had become engaged to her longstanding boyfriend, Ted Palmer. Ted, who was 23, was an unstable individual who took a sadistic enjoyment in brandishing a gun to scare his mother and two sisters, with whom he lived in Albany Place, Montpelier. Ted had experienced a brief spell of glory in the boxing ring and was now finding life as a chair maker somewhat tame by comparison. He had spent almost the whole of 1912 in Canada seeking more conducive employment and had not worked since his return to these shores in early December.

Poverty, however, did not appear to curtail his drinking habits. He had spent much of the Monday in question in various hostelries, arriving at Ada s house in the evening where he waited until she returned at 7.30. The two of them then set out for a walk to Narroways Hill, St Werburgh s, apparently on the best of terms. During their walk, if Ted is to be believed, he mentioned the possibility of leaving in the near future to try his fortune in the West Indies. His plan was that he would send for Ada once he was established. Ada, who had probably been fed the same line prior to his departure for Canada, reacted to this scheme by throwing her engagement ring at him and saying, If you do go I shall go on the town. I ve done it before and will do so again. At this point, according to Ted, everything went black .

The knowledge that his memory rejected was that he savagely slit her throat from ear to ear with a razor and made off towards Ashley Road, where he made attempts at two different shops to purchase writing materia~ presumably to pen his subsequent suicide note. This accomplished, he headed for Hodders on the corner of Warwick Road (now the Ebony Hair Salon) to obtain laudanum. It was but a brief step to his grandmother s house in Bean Street (a small portion of this thoroughfare remains at the rear of the Greek Orthodox church at the top of Claremont Street; the rest is covered by Easton Way). Here he washed in her back kitchen and, presumably, imbibed the poison. Police finally caught him, still wandering in the area at 2a.m.

He declined to make a statement other than that he had taken poison. The suicide attempt must have been a half-hearted one as he suffered no serious ill-effects. The next day he was told that Ada had been found on the corner of Lynmouth Road, having staggered some distance, bleeding to death from a throat wound, and had been taken to the Infirmary where she had later died. You don t mean to say she got over that stile? was Palmer s response. Do you think she suffered? Ted was then charged with her murder. Before she died Ada had scribbled Ted s name on a scrap of paper and whispered, My fiance did it .

Edward Henry Palmer was tried on February 19th, 1913. He appeared unmoved as he stood to face the charge, exchanging amicable greetings with his friends in the court. He pleaded not guilty. Prosecuting Counsel attempted to prove premeditated murder in as much as Palmer was carrying a razor newly purchased on the Sunday morning before the crime.

The remains of this fearless but misguided girl lie in Greenbank Cemetery. His explanation was that he had lost his own razor and evidence put forward by his family would endorse this. His sister had hidden it due to his threatening behaviour. Still, if he had bought the razor on Sunday why was it still in his pocket on Monday night? According to Ted, he was too drunk on the Sunday to shave. It seemed likely that he had it in his mind to frighten Ada.

Executioner Pierrepoint

Palmer was sentenced to death at Gloucester Assizes by the Lord Chief Justice on 19th February, and hanged by Thomas Pierrepoint and George Brown on the 19th March 1913 in Bristol. Ted Palmer was a shallow poseur; one who compensated for his lack of stature by dramatic and empty gestures; his fundamentally unbalanced nature aggravated by alcohol abuse.

Ada was emotional and strong-willed, but failed to understand the effect her impulsive words had on those to whom they were directed. Throughout the enquiry and subsequent trial there were hints of witnesses having their silence bought. There was also the suggestion that Ada s father was charging the morbidly curious a fee to view his dead daughter s body while it was laid out in the James front parlour.

That Was the Year That Was 1986
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Image by brizzle born and bred[2]
1986 Following a number of trouble free years in Space Exploration the Space Shuttle Challenger explodes shortly after take off watched by people live on TV around the world. The Internet Mail Access Protocol defined which opens the way for E-Mail and the same year the Human Genome Project is launched to understand the Human Makeup , this will open the way for great advances in the treatment of many illnesses. The worst ever Nuclear Disaster occurs as the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station Explodes causing the release of radioactive material across much of Europe. In the UK (BSE), commonly known as mad cow disease is identified which causes many deaths over the next few years and a major reform in farming practices.

In the year the Swedish Prime Minister, Olof Palme was assassinated in Stockholm, a nuclear reactor at Chernobyl (Ukraine) exploded, and Samora Machel, the President of Mozambique, died in a plane crash. In the world of music, the most dominant chart-toppers, each with 4 weeks at number 1, were Billy Ocean, the Communards, Berlin and the Christmas hit by Jackie Wilson Reet Petite . The mid-1980s were a time of economic uncertainty coming on the back of a deep recession. In 1986, Margaret Thatcher was Prime Minister, Sir Alex Ferguson had just become manager of Manchester United and a soap opera called Eastenders had been running for a year. The year began with a bitter winter and average February temperatures of -1.2C (29.8F). Newspaper printers and police clashed outside News International s printing plant in Wapping as thousands of demonstrators protested at new working conditions and the move to east London from the famous Fleet Street. The US launched air strikes against Libya, killing dozens of people in Tripoli after President Reagan said Colonel Gaddafi s country was behind a night club bombing in West Berlin that killed two American soldiers. Lady Thatcher had supported the campaign. At home, a new series called Bread was aired for the first time, depicting life in Lady Thatcher s Britain. Set in Liverpool and featuring the Boswell family, the sitcom became the biggest show in the UK as it responded to the troubles many were facing at the time. The show followed the Catholic family s struggles with money hence the title and attracted more than 21 million viewers when Aveline married the Protestant vicar Oswald in 1988.

Assembled In Britain (1986)

BMC Sows The Seeds Of It s Own Destruction With The Mini?


The Christmas Day TV of Christmas 1986 proved to be a major success for the BBC

Christmas 1986 will be long remembered for the incredible ratings achieved by BBC1 due to some very canny scheduling. But what else was going on at the time?

In the News: 1986 saw the wedding of Prince Andrew to Sarah Ferguson, in an age when Royal Weddings still meant something. Press barons Rupert Murdoch and Robert Maxwell entered a newspaper circulation war. In a key year for the press, The Independent newspaper was launched and Eddie Shah launched the first full colour daily tabloid, Today. In Sport: Maradona s “hand of god” sank England s chances in the Mexico World Cup. On the domestic front, Liverpool topped Division One and beat rivals Everton to the FA Cup. Oxford United won the League Cup. Frank Bruno was stateside in the big boxing clash of the year against Tim Witherspoon, while Edinburgh hosted the Commonwealth games. Motor racing driver Nigel Mansell was named BBC Sports Personality for 1986

Top of the charts: An unlikely Christmas hit for The Housemartins with the acapella Caravan of Love. Europe s anthemic Final Countdown was at number three whilst at number two a clever claymation video ensured Reet Petite by the late Jackie Wilson was bound for the summit. At the Box Office: Paul Hogan s Crocodile Dundee began a nine week stay at the top holding off the fantasy adventure Labyrinth. Back To The Future was the biggest film in the UK in 1986 followed by Rocky IV, Out Of Africa and Top Gun. Brit comedy Clockwise, which starred John Cleese at his manic best, came a creditable eighth.

On TV Christmas Day (Thursday December 25th 1986)

8am Play School
8,20am The Muppet Babies
8.45am Roland Rat-The Series
9.10am Papa Panov s Special Day
9.25am This Is the Day
10am FILM: The Pure Hell of St.Trinians
11.30am Christmas Morning With Noel
1.25pm Every Second Counts
2pm Top Of The Pops Christmas Party
3pm The Queen
3.10pm FILM: Annie, The Musical
5.15pm News
5.25pm Russ Abbott Christmas Show
6pm Just Good Friends
6.35pm EastEnders (Part One)
7.05pm Only Fools And Horses: A Royal Flush
8.20pm Miss Marple: Murder At The Vicarage
10pm EastEnders (Part Two)
10.30pm News
10.40pm FILM: Educating Rita
12.30am Weather

6.15am TV AM
9.25am Disney At Christmas
10.00am Christmas Family Service
11.00am He Man and She Ra Christmas Special
11.40am FILM: Swiss Family Robinson
2pm Ark Royal Rock Show
3pm The Queen
3.10pm FILM: Dumbo
4.20pm Strike It Lucky!
4.55pm News
5pm Cinderella-pantomime
6.30pm FILM: Never Say Never Again
9pm A Duty Free Christmas
10pm News
10.10pm Agatha Christie s Dead Man s Folly

1986 saw Michael Grade s sweeping changes come to fruition.This was the year of the EastEnders Christmas specials when an incredible 30 million viewers were glued to the soap opera as Den and Angie finally ended their turbulent marriage. The Radio Times even carried phone numbers to call “if you were affected by the issues raised”. Commendable, but not really what you want to see on the Christmas Day billings pages

At 11.30am Noel Edmonds presented a live show from the top of the Telecom tower. The show s format had undergone some changes since its inception in 1984 as The Live, Live Breakfast Christmas Show, most notably a necessary name change. This year we were perhaps surprised to see Noel at all on Christmas Day given only weeks earlier the death of Michael Lush had ended his Late, Late Breakfast Show in the most tragic circumstances. Annie was the big afternoon kids film and the early evening featured specials from Russ Abbot (a recent recruit from ITV) and the last-ever Just Good Friends. In the middle of the EastEnders “sandwich” was the now traditional Only Fools and Horses. In a surprisingly subdued episode, played without canned laughter, Rodney fell for an uppercrust Duke s daughter, only for Del to see an opportunity to join the country set. Joan Hickson s Miss Marple investigated The Murder at The Vicarage. BBC1 s late film was a premiere for Educating Rita, Willy Russell s witty campus comedy starring Michael Caine and Julie Walters. Meanwhile on ITV, cartoons were the order of the day with a He Man and She Ra Christmas Special and the classic Disney film Dumbo. Michael Barrymore was making his name with Strike It Lucky! and James Bond was an ITV Christmas tradition, this year in the form of a be-wigged Sean Connery making his return after a 12 year break in Never Say Never Again. The film was dismissed by the regular Bond producer Cubby Broccoli, who feared it might harm the chances of Roger Moore s Octopussy. Duty Free presented an extended holiday episode in keeping with most sitcoms of the time. ITV also screened an Agatha Christie mystery Dead Man s Folly, to pick up viewers from Miss Marple no doubt.

BBC2 celebrated the directorial work of Vincente Minnelli (Liza s dad) in the alliteratively titled Minnelli Musical. Later, there was a live Christmas concert from Amsterdam, while the classic Jack Lemmon/Walter Matthau film The Fortune Cookie was a part of a short season of Billy Wilder films. BBC2 celebrated the 85th birthday of composer Aaron Copeland and then screened Edith and Marcel, a film drama based on the obsessive and destructive relationship between 40s French icons, Edith Piaf and Marcel Cerdan. A true Geek highlight followed the film as Robert Powell told the first of five “chilling tales for dark winter nights”. MR James The Mezzotint was tonight s chiller. If the premise seems a bit Jackanory then it would come as no surprise the Jackanory production team were behind the series! Billy Wilder film Fedora was BBC2 s Christmas Day late film. Channel Four only four years old already had something of a tradition in the regular Christmas Day showing of Raymond Briggs animation The Snowman

And in the Radio Times
Oh dear! Okay, so I m no fan of soap opera (least of all EastEnders) but for the Christmas issue of the (then) best-selling magazine in Britain this is, quite frankly, an awful cover. This just feels calculated at worst and lazy at best. To be fair, EastEnders was huge at the time so it would certainly generate sales yet when everyone who wanted a BBC Christmas listings guide had to buy RadioTimes there is little reason the cover should be anything other than purely decorative. This was the only year I ve felt embarrassed buying the magazine. On the positive side it was followed by two beautifully illustrated covers for Christmas 1987 and 1988. Tellingly perhaps, the 1988 issue is officially the biggest magazine sale ever in this country. Some 11.2 million people purchased the magazine that year. As for this one? Just over ten million sales

1986 Timeline

January Production of the Vauxhall Belmont compact saloon begins, giving buyers a traditional saloon alternative to the Astra hatchback and estate models.

9 January Michael Heseltine resigns as Defence Secretary over the Westland affair.

After three successive monthly falls in unemployment, the jobless count for December 1985 increased by nearly 15,000 to 3,181,300.

12 January Game show Catchphrase begins on ITV hosted by Roy Walker along with the computer generated character Mr. Chips.

20 January The United Kingdom and France announce plans to construct the Channel Tunnel, which they hope to open by the early 1990s.

24 January Leon Brittan resigns as Trade and Industry Secretary over the Westland affair.

31 January Unemployment for this month has increased to 3,204,900 a postwar high which accounts for 14.4% of the workforce. February Heavy snow and sub zero temperatures affected most of Britain during the month.

6 February The government scraps plans to sell Austin Rover to Ford.

12 February The Franco-British Channel Fixed Link Treaty is signed at Canterbury as the Channel Tunnel plans move forward.

15 February In the Wapping dispute, fifty-eight people are arrested by police at a demonstration.

17 February The UK signs the Single European Act.

4 March The national tabloid newspaper Today launches. It pioneers the use of computer photo typesetting and full-colour offset printing at a time when British national newspapers are still using Linotype machines and letterpress.

5 March The High Court disqualifies and fines 81 Labour councillors for failing to set a rate.

13 March The Sun newspaper alleges that comedian Freddie Starr ate a live hamster.

18 March Inheritance Tax replaces Capital Transfer Tax.

19 March Buckingham Palace announces the engagement of Prince Andrew to Sarah Ferguson; they will be married later this year.

23 March Chelsea are the first winners of the Football League s new Full Members Cup, beating Manchester City 5-4 in the final at Wembley, although Manchester City clawed the deficit to a single goal in the last five minutes after being 5-1 down.

29 March The first high-speed catamaran ferry is introduced into service in the British Isles, HSC Our Lady Patricia on Sealink British Ferries Portsmouth Ryde passage.

31 March The Greater London Council is abolished, as are the metropolitan county councils of West Midlands, Greater Manchester, Merseyside, Tyne and Wear, West Yorkshire and South Yorkshire. A fire causes extensive damage at Hampton Court Palace in Surrey.

The Haig Pit, Whitehaven, Cumbria closes. April Hanson Trust concludes its takeover of the Imperial Group for 2.5 billion.

7 April Clive Sinclair sells rights to ZX Spectrum and other inventions to Amstrad.

15 April The government s Shops Bill 1986, which would have liberalised Sunday shopping, is defeated in the House of Commons on its second reading: the Thatcher government s only defeat in the Commons.

17 April Journalist John McCarthy is kidnapped in Beirut, where three other hostages are found dead. The Revolutionary Cells (RZ) claims responsibility as revenge for the recent American bombing of Libya. A treaty is signed, ending the supposed Three Hundred and Thirty Five Years War between the Netherlands and the Isles of Scilly.

20 April Oxford United, who only joined the Football League in 1962 and are in the First Division for the first time, win the Football League Cup with a 3-0 win over Queens Park Rangers at Wembley.

28 April The first phase of the MetroCentre, Europe s largest indoor shopping centre, in Gateshead, is opened. The remainder of the centre is set to open this autumn.

29 April The Duchess of Windsor is buried at Frogmore.

30 April Rioting erupts overnight in prisons across Britain. Dozens of prisoners escape, while prisoners at Stafford Prison set the prison canteen alight by smashing windows and dumping a burning mattress onto the roof. The worst disturbances come at Northeye Prison in Sussex, where a 70-strong mob of prisoners takes over the jail and sets fire to the canteen, hospital wing and sports hall.

May The last Talbot badged passenger cars are built in Britain and France by Peugeot, who will continue making their own cars at the former Rootes Group plant near Coventry and the former Simca production facilities in France. Peugeot is to continue the Talbot brand for commercial vehicles, and production of the Horizon range will continue in Spain and Finland until next year.

2 May Liverpool win the Football League First Division title for a record 16th time after winning 1-0 at Chelsea. Kenny Dalglish, in his first season as the club s player-manager, scores the goal which gives Liverpool the title.

8 May Labour makes large gains in local council elections, collecting 37% of the votes nationally compared to the Conservatives on 34% and the Alliance on 26%. These are the first national elections to be held since the recent abolition of the metropolitan councils.

10 May The first all Merseyside FA Cup final ends in a 3 1 win for Liverpool over Everton, who become only the third team this century to win the double, having already secured the Football League First Division title.

21 May The Harrison Birtwistle opera The Mask of Orpheus premiers in London.

10 June Patrick Joseph Magee found guilty of the Brighton hotel bombing of 20 months ago and sentenced to life imprisonment.

12 June Derek Hatton, leader of Liverpool council, is expelled from the Labour Party for belonging to the entryist Militant group. Austin Rover is renamed the Rover Group four years after the name change from British Leyland.

22 June The England national football team s hopes of winning the World Cup are ended with a 2 1 defeat in the quarter-finals by Argentina, a game in which Diego Maradona is allowed a blatantly handballed goal.

23 June Patrick Magee is jailed for life for the Brighton bombing of October 1984 as well as other IRA bombings.

24 June Ian Paisley s Democratic Unionist Party stage protest at dissolution of Northern Ireland Assembly.

29 June Richard Branson beats the speed record for a transatlantic crossing by boat in Virgin Atlantic Challenger II but is denied the Blue Riband award.

The World Cup ends in Mexico with Argentina as winners and West Germany runners-up, but England s Gary Lineker wins the Golden Boot, having finished as the competition s leading scorer with six goals. Lineker, who has been at Everton for the last year and was the First Division s top scorer, is reported to be on the verge of a transfer to FC Barcelona of Spain. July Nissan begins production of the Bluebird at its landmark factory near Sunderland.

1 July Gary Lineker becomes the most expensive British footballer ever in a 2.75 million move from Everton to FC Barcelona.

2 July 24 hours after Gary Lineker s transfer, Ian Rush sets a new transfer record for a British footballer when he agrees a 3.2 million move from Liverpool to Juventus of Italy, but is loaned back to Liverpool for a season and will not play his first game for Juventus until at least August 1987.

4 July A policeman is cleared of the manslaughter of five-year-old John Shorthouse, who was killed in an armed raid on a house in Birmingham in August last year.

10 July Austin Rover launches its new Honda-based Rover 800 executive car, which replaces the decade-old Rover SD1 and is part of a joint venture with Japanese carmaker Honda. The car will also be sold in America under the Sterling marque. The Honda version will be badged as the Honda Legend.

12 July Rioting breaks out at Portadown in Northern Ireland between Protestants and Catholics.

17 July It is announced that unemployment rose to 3,220,400 in June. It has now exceeded 3 million for nearly five years.

21 July A report finds that 20% of British children are now born out of wedlock.

23 July Prince Andrew, Duke of York, marries Sarah Ferguson at Westminster Abbey in London.

24 July 2 August The Commonwealth Games are held in Edinburgh.

28 July Estate agent Suzy Lamplugh vanishes after a meeting in London.

30 July A MORI poll shows that Labour are now nine points ahead of the Conservatives with 41% of the vote, with Liberal/SDP Alliance support now at 25%.

8 August Rival gangs of Manchester United and West Ham United fans clash on a Sealink ferry bound for Amsterdam where the two clubs are playing pre-season friendlies. The UEFA ban on English clubs in European competitions is continuing for a second season, and there are now fears that English clubs may not even be able to play friendlies overseas.

13 August The Eurotunnel Group is formed to operate the Channel Tunnel.

15 August The latest MORI poll shows that the Conservatives have eliminated Labour s nine-point lead and drawn level with them by gaining 37% in the latest opinion poll, in the space of just over two weeks.

16 August Figures released by the government reveal that a record of nearly 3,100,000 people claimed unemployment benefit last month, although the official total of unemployed people in Britain is still short of the record of nearly 3,300,000 which was set two years ago.

19 August The Privatisation of the National Bus Company begins with the first sale of a bus operating subsidiary, Devon General, in a management buyout.

22 August John Stalker, deputy chief constable of Greater Manchester police, is cleared of misconduct over allegations of associating with criminals.

25 August Economists warn that a global recession is imminent, barely five years after the previous recession.

29 August Britain s oldest twins, May and Marjorie Chavasse, celebrate their 100th birthday. September GCSE examination courses replace both GCE O Level and CSE courses for 14-year olds.

6 September First episode of medical drama serial Casualty airs on BBC One. It will still be running on television more than twenty five years later.

8 September Margaret Thatcher officially opens the first phase of the Nissan car factory at Sunderland, which has been in use for two months. It is the first car factory to be built in Europe by a Japanese car maker.

14 September Fears of another recession in Britain are eased by economists at Liverpool University predicting 3.1% economic growth next year.

18 September It is announced that unemployment rose to 3,280,106 in July.

19 September Two people are killed and 100 injured at the Colwich rail crash.

24 September The floatation of the Trustee Savings Banks attracts a record of more than 4 million applications for shares.

7 October The first edition of The Independent was published.

9 October “Babes in the Wood” murders: Two girls, Nicola Fellows (aged nine) and Karen Hadaway (aged 10), are reported missing in Moulsecoomb, Brighton.

10 October “Babes in the Wood” murders: Two bodies found in Wild Park, Brighton, are identified as those of the two girls reported missing yesterday and a murder investigation is launched; no-one is ever convicted.

12 October Elizabeth II and The Duke of Edinburgh visit the People s Republic of China, the first ever visit to that country by a British monarch.

14 October The MetroCentre, a shopping complex built on the Tyneside Enterprise Zone, is opened. It is similar in concept to the Merry Hill Shopping Centre that is being developed near Dudley in the West Midlands. The MetroCentre is officially the largest shopping complex in Europe. Among the MetroCentre s tenants is Marks & Spencer, whose department store there is its first out of town outlet.

24 October The UK breaks off diplomatic relations with Syria over links to the Hindawi Affair.

26 October Bus deregulation begins in the United Kingdom, except Greater London and Northern Ireland.

Jeffrey Archer resigns as Deputy Leader of the Conservative Party over allegations concerning prostitutes.

27 October “Big Bang Day”: London Stock Exchange is computerised, and opens to foreign companies.

28 October Jeremy Bamber is found guilty of the murder of his parents, sister, and twin nephews and is sentenced to life imprisonment with a recommended minimum of 25 years, which is likely to keep him behind bars until at least 2011.

29 October Margaret Thatcher opens the completed M25 London Orbital Motorway. November First UNESCO World Heritage Sites in the U.K. designated: Giant s Causeway and the Causeway Coast (Northern Ireland); Durham Castle and Cathedral; Ironbridge Gorge; Studley Royal Park (including the ruins of Fountains Abbey); Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites; and Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd (Wales). Launch of the second generation Vauxhall Carlton, largest model in the Vauxhall range. It will be sold as the Opel Omega on the continent, and all European versions of the car will be built in West Germany.

3 November The Conservatives top a MORI poll for the first time this year, coming one point ahead of Labour with 40% of the vote. Liberal/SDP Alliance support has slumped to 18%.

6 November 45 oil workers are killed when a Chinook helicopter carrying them from the Brent oilfield crashed.

Alex Ferguson is appointed manager of Manchester United football club following the dismissal of Ron Atkinson after more than five years in charge. United won two FA Cups under the management of Atkinson but have not won the league title since 1967 and are now second from bottom in the Football League First Division. Chancellor Nigel Lawson announces a 4.6 billion rise in public spending.

7 November Sir James Goldsmith s 5 billion bid for the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company is rejected.

13 November It is announced that unemployment fell by 96,000 in October.

18 November Ian Brady and Myra Hindley, who are both still behind bars some 20 years after their Moors Murders convictions, confess to the murders of two missing children. They admit their responsibility for the deaths of Pauline Reade, who vanished in July 1963 at the age of 16, and Keith Bennett, who was last seen in June 1964 at the age of 12. Police had suspected that the pair were among the Moors Murders victims soon after beginning their investigation on the arrest of Brady and Hindley in October 1965, but did not find the bodies or indeed any evidence to be able to press charges.

20 November Police begin their search for the two newly identified Moors Murders victims.

21 November The government launches a 20 million campaign to warn members of the public about the dangers of AIDS. December The first case of Bovine spongiform encephalopathy is diagnosed in British cattle.

1 December The government launches an inquiry into financial irregularities at Guinness.

3 December 4 million people apply for shares in British Gas in ancitipation of floatation next week.

4 December 20-year-old roofer Russell Bishop is charged with the “Babes in the Wood” murders in Brighton two months ago but will be acquitted.

8 December British Gas shares are floated on the Stock Exchange. The initial public offering of 135p per share values the company at 9 billion, the highest equity offering ever at this time.

17 December The world s first heart, lung and liver transplant is carried out at Papworth Hospital in Cambridgeshire.

18 December It is announced that unemployment fell to a four-year low of less than 3,100,000 in November.

22 December David Penhaligon, a leading Liberal Party MP, dies in a car crash near Truro in Cornwall at the age of 42.

25 December The highest audience of all time for a British television drama is attracted by the Christmas Day episode of EastEnders, the BBC 1 soap opera, in which Den Watts (Leslie Grantham) serves the divorce papers on his wife Angie (Anita Dobson) after discovering that she had feigned a terminal illness to try to stop him from leaving her in an episode aired in October this year. More than 30 million viewers tune in for the episode of the TV series which first went on air in February 1985.

29 December Harold Macmillan, Earl of Stockton and former prime minister, dies at the age of 92 at his home, Birch Grove in East Sussex.

Inflation reaches a 19-year low of 3.4%. Introduction of Family credit, a tax credit for poorer families. Bank of England withdraws its guidance on mortgage lending.

Establishment of National Museums and Galleries on Merseyside group of institutions, funded through national government. The millionth council house in the United Kingdom is sold to its tenants in Scotland, seven years after the right to buy scheme was launched. Mathematician Simon Donaldson wins a Fields Medal.


4 January Televised football returns to British television after the contractual dispute from the previous year is resolved.

12 January Catchphrase makes its debut on ITV.

28 January NASA s Space Shuttle Challenger spacecraft disintegrates. Pictures from CNN in the United States (owned by Turner Broadcasting System, then owners of American superstation WTBS), are aired in countries around the world.

19 February BBC1 airs Round Britain Whizz, an edition of the science series Q.E.D..The 30 minute programme consists of a sped up flight around the coastline of Great Britain with guest appearances from geologists and TV personalities including Patrick Moore, David Bellamy and Terry Wogan telling the viewer about the geology and natural history of certain areas.

10 March The first advert for a sanitary towel is broadcast on British television, on Channel 4.

1 April All commercial activities of the BBC are now handled by BBC Enterprises Ltd.

15 April The last episode of children s cartoon series Bananaman is broadcast.

21 May A Very Peculiar Practice airs.

31 May 29 June Telvised coverage of the 1986 FIFA World Cup. England exit on 22 June with a 2-1 defeat to Argentina, who go on to beat West Germany in the final to win the trophy for the third time.

18 June In Coronation Street the Rovers Return pub is gutted by fire with landlady Bet Lynch (Julie Goodyear) trapped inside.

23 July In London, Prince Andrew, Duke of York marries Sarah Ferguson at Westminster Abbey. The event receives significant television coverage both in the UK and around the world.

5 August Michael Cashman makes his EastEnders debut as Colin Russell, the soap s first gay character.

9 August The Yorkshire Television ITV region becomes the first UK terrestrial channel to broadcast 24 hours a day, initially simulcasting the cable and satellite music video channel Music Box throughout the night. The other ITV regions gradually switch to 24 hour television over the next two years.

26 August In Emmerdale Farm, original character Pat Sugden dies after rolling her car down a hillside to avoid a flock of sheep.

6 September Part One of The Trial of a Time Lord is broadcast on BBC1, marking the return to air of Doctor Who after an 18-month hiatus.

The first episode of medical drama Casualty airs on BBC1.

19 September Central TV revives New Faces, a 1970s talent show produced by its predecessor, ATV. Styled as New Faces of 86, it is presented by Marti Caine, a winner from the previous version.

12 October Every Loser Wins performed by the actor Nick Berry begins a three-week run at the top of the UK Singles Chart after featuring in recent episodes of EastEnders. The song was an instant hit on release and went on to win its writers an Ivor Novello Award.

16 October The first two-hander episode of EastEnders, featuring Den and Angie Watts (Leslie Grantham and Anita Dobson), is aired by BBC1. The episode, in which Angie tells Den she has six months to live after he tells her he wants a divorce, was an experiment as the two-hander format had not been tried in a British soap before, but received well by viewers and critics.

27 October The Australian soap Neighbours makes its British television debut on BBC1, a year after it was first aired in its homeland. BBC One starts a full daytime television service. Before today, excluding special events coverage, BBC One had closed down at times during weekday mornings and afternoons broadcasting trade test transmissions and, from May 1983, Pages From Ceefax.

16 November Dennis Potter s critically acclaimed television serial The Singing Detective makes its debut on BBC1.

7 December Jack Rosenthal s original two hour TV movie of London s Burning, directed by Les Blair is broadcast on ITV. It returns for a full series in February 1988.

13 December Comedian Duggie Small wins New Faces of 86.

23 December Ringo Starr narrates his last ever Thomas the Tank Engine and Friends episode, the second series finale, “Thomas & the Missing Christmas Tree”.

25 December 30.15 million tune in to watch “Dirty” Dennis Watts hand wife Angie her divorce papers in EastEnders, making it the highest rated episode of any drama in British television history.

26 December The Rainbow 30 minute Christmas special, The Colours of the Rainbow is the highest ever rating episode of the show. It was thought that Rainbow would end following this episode, but Thames Television renewed the contract after good ratings.


10 January Lovejoy (1986 1994)
8 February Every Second Counts (1986 1993)
23 April Jossy s Giants (1986 1987)
1 May Bread (1986 1991)
28 May Pingu (1986 1998, 2004 2006)
31 August The Monocled Mutineer (1986)
1 September Brush Strokes (1986 1991)
6 September Casualty (1986 present)
27 October BBC News at One (1986 present)
16 November The Singing Detective (1986)


12 May Naked Video (1986 1991)


8 January Allsorts (1985 1995)
10 January Central Weekend (1986 2001)
12 January Catchphrase (1986 2002, 2013 present)
14 January Boon (1986 1992, 1995)
16 February Hot Metal (1986 1989)
3 May Get Fresh (1986 1988)
20 October Executive Stress (1986-1988)
29 October Strike It Lucky (1986 1999)
31 October The Two of Us (1986 1990)
22 November Beadle s About (1986 1996)

Channel 4

11 April The Chart Show (1986 1998, 2008 2009)


The first number 1 single of 1986 was the breakthrough hit for London synthpop duo the Pet Shop Boys. Their song “West End Girls” had climbed the charts during late 1985 and reached number 1 for two weeks in January. They would have three more top 20 hits this year as well as two top 20 albums, and were still reaching the top 10 in 2006, twenty years later. Another popular synthpop duo this year were Erasure, with their song “Sometimes” reaching number two in the autumn; this success would be followed by many more hits throughout the decade. After four successful years, the band Wham! split up in the spring. Made up of George Michael and Andrew Ridgeley, they finished with a farewell concert at Wembley Stadium, a greatest hits album The Final which reached number 2, and the single “The Edge of Heaven”, their fourth and final number 1. George Michael also reached number 1 this year with a solo release, A Different Corner, and went on to have a highly successful solo career.

The formation of the charity Comic Relief provided an unusual song from Cliff Richard, a singer with several huge hits in the 1950s and 60s. He teamed up with the cast of the popular sitcom The Young Ones (itself named after a Richard song) for a new version of his 1959 single “Living Doll”, half sung by Richard and half shouted by the Young Ones cast. With proceeds going to the charity, it reached number one for three weeks and was Richard s first number 1 of the decade. Another novelty number one was “The Chicken Song”, sung by the cast of satirical puppet show Spitting Image. With lyrics such as “Hold a chicken in the air, stick a deckchair up your nose” it was intended as a parody of novelty holiday songs which were popular at the time, and also topped the chart for three weeks. American singer Madonna had the biggest-selling album of the year with “True Blue”. All singles released from it made the top five, including the number 1s “Papa Don t Preach”, “True Blue”, and “La Isla Bonita” which topped the chart the year after. The biggest-selling single of the year went to The Communards, with a hi-NRG cover of the disco song “Don t Leave Me This Way”. The band included singer Jimmy Somerville who had previously enjoyed success with Bronski Beat, and later started a solo career. The Christmas number one single was something of a surprise, a re-issue of Jackie Wilson s 1957 single “Reet Petite”. Wilson had died in 1984, but the song been re-issued after being used in a television advert for Levi s, with a new video made of a Claymation version of Wilson. Having first been released 29 years earlier, it broke the record for the longest time between a single being released and it hitting number 1, a record that would last until 2005 when Tony Christie s 1971 song “(Is This the Way to) Amarillo” topped the chart.

The Orchestra of the Age of Enlightenment was founded in London by a group of period music enthusiasts, going on to become one of the UK s leading orchestras. Harrison Birtwistle s innovative opera, The Mask of Orpheus, was premi red in London, to great critical acclaim. Michael Nyman also came up with a new opera, The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat, a chamber work with a minimalist score.


January The Adrian Boult Hall is opened at Birmingham Conservatoire by the Duchess of Gloucester.

15 March “Heartbeat 86”, a charity concert for the Birmingham Children s Hospital, is held at the NEC. Performers include Roy Wood, UB40, The Moody Blues, Electric Light Orchestra and Robert Plant. George Harrison makes a surprise appearance playing Johnny B. Goode with everyone at the end of the show.

7 June Queen start The Magic Tour which becomes their final tour with all original members and also their most successful tour.

27 October Michael Nyman s chamber opera The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat is premiered at the Institute of Contemporary Arts, London.

Charts Number one singles

“Merry Christmas Everyone” Shakin Stevens
“West End Girls” Pet Shop Boys
“The Sun Always Shines on TV” a-ha
“When The Going Gets Tough, “The Tough Get Going” Billy Ocean
“Chain Reaction” Diana Ross
“Living Doll” Cliff Richard and The Young Ones
“A Different Corner” George Michael
“Rock Me Amadeus” Falco
“The Chicken Song” Spitting Image
“Spirit in the Sky” Doctor and the Medics
“The Edge of Heaven” Wham!
“Papa Don t Preach” Madonna
“The Lady in Red” Chris de Burgh
“I Want to Wake Up with You” Boris Gardiner
“Don t Leave Me This Way” The Communards
“True Blue” Madonna
“Every Loser Wins”- Nick Berry
“Take My Breath Away” Berlin
“The Final Countdown” Europe
“Caravan of Love” The Housemartins
“Reet Petite” Jackie Wilson

Marine Week Boston, 2010: Bell-Boeing MV-22B Osprey tilt-rotor aircraft accepting VIP passengers (note the business suits) before taking off from Boston Common
Nice Gun Fails Photos
Image by Chris Devers[4]
Pasted from Wikipedia: Bell-Boeing V-22 Osprey[5]

The Bell-Boeing V-22 Osprey[6] is a multi-mission, military, tiltrotor[7] aircraft[8] with both a vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL[9]), and short takeoff and landing (STOL[10]) capability. It is designed to combine the functionality of a conventional helicopter[11] with the long-range, high-speed cruise performance of a turboprop[12] aircraft. The V-22 originated from the U.S. Department of Defense[13] Joint-service Vertical take-off/landing Experimental (JVX) aircraft program started in 1981. It was developed jointly by the Bell Helicopter[14], and Boeing Helicopters[15] team, known as Bell Boeing, which produce the aircraft.[4] The V-22 first flew in 1989, and began years of flight testing and design alterations. The United States Marine Corps[16] began crew training for the Osprey in 2000, and fielded it in 2007. The Osprey s other operator, the U.S. Air Force[17] fielded their version of the tiltrotor in 2009. Since entering service with the U.S. Marine Corps and Air Force, the Osprey has been deployed for combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan.


1 Development
1.1 Early development
1.2 Flight testing and design changes
1.3 Controversy
1.4 Recent development
2 Design
3 Operational history
3.1 US Marine Corps
3.2 US Air Force
3.3 Potential operators
4 Variants
5 Operators
6 Notable accidents
7 Specifications (MV-22B)
8 Notable appearances in media
9 See also
10 References
11 External links[18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35]


Early development

The failure of the Iran hostage rescue mission in 1980 demonstrated to the United States military a need[5] for “a new type of aircraft, that could not only take off and land vertically but also could carry combat troops, and do so at speed.”[6] The U.S. Department of Defense began the Joint-service Vertical take-off/landing Experimental (JVX) aircraft program in 1981, under U.S. Army leadership. Later the U.S. Navy/Marine Corps took the lead.[7][8] The JVX combined requirements from the Marine Corps, Air Force, Army and Navy.[9][10] A request for proposals (RFP) was issued in December 1982 for JVX preliminary design work. Interest in the program was expressed by A rospatiale, Bell Helicopter, Boeing Vertol, Grumman, Lockheed, and Westland. The DoD pushed for contractors to form teams. Bell partnered with Boeing Vertol. The Bell Boeing team submitted a proposal for a enlarged version of the Bell XV-15 prototype on 17 February 1983. This was the only proposal received and a preliminary design contract was awarded on 26 April 1983.[11][12][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45]

The JVX aircraft was designated V-22 Osprey on 15 January 1985; by March that same year the first six prototypes were being produced, and Boeing Vertol was expanded to deal with the project workload.[13][14] Work has been split evenly between Bell and Boeing. Bell Helicopter manufactures and integrates the wing, nacelles, rotors, drive system, tail surfaces, and aft ramp, as well as integrates the Rolls-Royce engines and performs final assembly. Boeing Helicopters manufactures and integrates the fuselage, cockpit, avionics, and flight controls.[4][15] The USMC variant of the Osprey received the MV-22 designation and the Air Force variant received CV-22; reversed from normal procedure to prevent Marine Ospreys from having a conflicting designation with aircraft carriers (CV).[16] Full-scale development of the V-22 tilt-rotor aircraft began in 1986.[2] On 3 May 1986 the Bell-Boeing partnership was awarded a .714 billion contract for V-22 aircraft by the Navy, thus at this point the project had acquisition plans with all four arms of the U.S. military.[17][46]

The first V-22 was rolled out with significant media attention in May 1988.[18][19] However the project suffered several political blows. Firstly in the same year, the Army left the program, citing a need to focus its budget on more immediate aviation programs.[20] The project also faced considerable dialogue in the Senate, surviving two votes that both could have resulted in cancellation.[21][22] Despite the Senate s decision, the Department of Defense instructed the Navy not to spend more money on the Osprey.[23] At the same time, the Bush administration sought the cancellation of the project.[23][47]

Flight testing and design changes

The first of six MV-22 prototypes first flew on 19 March 1989 in the helicopter mode,[24] and on 14 September 1989 as a fixed-wing plane.[25] The third and fourth prototypes successfully completed the Osprey s first Sea Trials on the USS Wasp in December 1990.[26] However, the fourth and fifth prototypes crashed in 1991-92.[27] Flight tests were resumed in August 1993 after changes were incorporated in the prototypes.[2] From October 1992 until April 1993, Bell and Boeing redesigned the V-22 to reduce empty weight, simplify manufacture and reduce production costs. This redesigned version became the B-model.[28][48]

Flight testing of four full-scale development V-22s began in early 1997 when the first pre-production V-22 was delivered to the Naval Air Warfare Test Center, Naval Air Station Patuxent River, Maryland. The first EMD flight took place on 5 February 1997. The first of four low rate initial production aircraft, ordered on 28 April 1997, was delivered on 27 May 1999. Osprey number 10 completed the program s second Sea Trials, this time from the USS Saipan in January 1999.[2] During external load testing in April 1999, Boeing used a V-22 to lift and transport the M777 howitzer.[29] In 2000, Boeing announced that the V-22 would be fitted with a nose-mounted GAU-19 Gatling gun,[30] but the GAU-19 gun was later canceled.[31][49][50][51][52][53][54][55]

In 2000, there were two further fatal crashes, killing a total of 19 Marines, and the production was again halted while the cause of these crashes was investigated and various parts were redesigned.[32] The V-22 completed its final operational evaluation in June 2005. The evaluation was deemed successful; events included long range deployments, high altitude, desert and shipboard operations. The problems identified in various accidents had been addressed.[33]


The V-22 s development process has been long and controversial, partly due to its large cost increases.[34] When the development budget, first planned for .5 billion in 1986, increased to a projected billion in 1988, then-Defense Secretary Dick Cheney tried to zero out its funding. He was eventually overruled by Congress.[32] As of 2008, billion have been spent on the Osprey program and another .2 billion will be required to complete planned production numbers by the end of the program.[2][56][57][58]

The V-22 squadron s former commander at Marine Corps Air Station New River, Lt. Colonel Odin Lieberman, was relieved of duty in 2001 after allegations that he instructed his unit that they needed to falsify maintenance records to make the plane appear more reliable.[2][35] Three officers were later implicated in the falsification scandal.[34][59]

The aircraft is incapable of autorotation, and is therefore unable to land safely in helicopter mode if both engines fail. A director of the Pentagon s testing office in 2005 said that if the Osprey loses power while flying like a helicopter below 1,600 feet (490 m), emergency landings “are not likely to be survivable”. But Captain Justin (Moon) McKinney, a V-22 pilot, says that this will not be a problem, “We can turn it into a plane and glide it down, just like a C-130“.[31] A complete loss of power would require the failure of both engines, as a drive shaft connects the nacelles through the wing; one engine can power both proprotors.[36] While vortex ring state (VRS) contributed to a deadly V-22 accident, the aircraft is less susceptible to the condition than conventional helicopters and recovers more quickly.[5] The Marines now train new pilots in the recognition of and recovery from VRS and have instituted operational envelope limits and instrumentation to help pilots avoid VRS conditions.[32][37][60][61][62][63][64]

It was planned in 2000 to equip all V-22s with a nose-mounted Gatling gun, to provide “the V-22 with a strong defensive firepower capability to greatly increase the aircraft s survivability in hostile actions.”[30] The nose gun project was canceled however, leading to criticism by retired Marine Corps Commandant General James L. Jones, who is not satisfied with the current V-22 armament.[31] A belly-mounted turret was later installed on some of the first V-22s sent to the War in Afghanistan in 2009.[38][65][66][67][68]

With the first combat deployment of the MV-22 in October 2007, Time Magazine[69] ran an article condemning the aircraft as unsafe, overpriced, and completely inadequate.[31] The Marine Corps, however, responded with the assertion that much of the article s data were dated, obsolete, inaccurate, and reflected expectations that ran too high for any new field of aircraft.[39]

Recent development

On 28 September 2005, the Pentagon formally approved full-rate production for the V-22.[40] The plan is to boost production from 11 a year to between 24 and 48 a year by 2012. Of the 458 total planned, 360 are for the Marine Corps, 48 for the Navy, and 50 for the Air Force at an average cost of 0 million per aircraft, including development costs.[2] The V-22 had an incremental flyaway cost of million per aircraft in 2007,[3] but the Navy hopes to shave about million off that cost after a five-year production contract starts in 2008.[41][70]

The Bell-Boeing Joint Project Office in Amarillo, Texas will design a new integrated avionics processor to resolve electronics obsolescence issues and add new network capabilities.[42]


The Osprey is the world s first production tiltrotor aircraft, with one three-bladed proprotor, turboprop engine, and transmission nacelle mounted on each wingtip. It is classified as a powered lift aircraft by the Federal Aviation Administration.[43] For takeoff and landing, it typically operates as a helicopter with the nacelles vertical (rotors horizontal). Once airborne, the nacelles rotate forward 90 in as little as 12 seconds for horizontal flight, converting the V-22 to a more fuel-efficient, higher-speed turboprop airplane. STOL rolling-takeoff and landing capability is achieved by having the nacelles tilted forward up to 45 . For compact storage and transport, the V-22 s wing rotates to align, front-to-back, with the fuselage. The proprotors can also fold in a sequence taking 90 seconds.[44][71][72][73][74][75]

Most Osprey missions will use fixed wing flight 75 percent or more of the time, reducing wear and tear on the aircraft and reducing operational costs.[45] This fixed wing flight is higher than typical helicopter missions allowing longer range line-of-sight communications and so improved command and control.[2] Boeing has stated the V-22 design loses 10% of its vertical lift over a Tiltwing design when operating in helicopter mode because of airflow resistance due to the wings, but that the Tiltrotor design has better short takeoff and landing performance.[46][76][77]

The V-22 is equipped with a glass cockpit, which incorporates four Multi-function displays (MFDs) and one shared Central Display Unit (CDU), allowing the pilots to display a variety of images including: digimaps centered or decentered on current position, FLIR imagery, primary flight instruments, navigation (TACAN, VOR, ILS, GPS, INS), and system status. The flight director panel of the Cockpit Management System (CMS) allows for fully-coupled (aka: autopilot) functions which will take the aircraft from forward flight into a 50-foot hover with no pilot interaction other than programming the system.[47] The glass cockpit of the canceled CH-46X was derived from the V-22.[48][78][79][80][81][82][83][84][85][86]

The V-22 is a fly-by-wire aircraft with triple-redundant flight control systems.[49] With the nacelles pointing straight up in conversion mode at 90 the flight computers command the aircraft to fly like a helicopter, with cyclic forces being applied to a conventional swashplate at the rotor hub. With the nacelles in airplane mode (0 ) the flaperons, rudder, and elevator fly the aircraft like an airplane. This is a gradual transition and occurs over the rotation range of the nacelles. The lower the nacelles, the greater effect of the airplane-mode control surfaces.[50] The nacelles can rotate past vertical to 97.5 for rearward flight.[51][52][87][88][89][90]

The Osprey can be armed with one M240[91] 7.62x51mm NATO[92] (.308[93] in caliber[94]) or M2 .50 in caliber[95] (12.7 mm) machine gun[96] on the loading ramp, that can be fired rearward when the ramp is lowered. A GAU-19[97] three-barrel .50 in gatling gun mounted below the V-22 s nose has also been studied for future upgrade.[31][53] BAE Systems[98] developed a remotely operated turreted weapons system for the V-22,[54] which was installed on half of the first V-22s deployed to Afghanistan in 2009.[38] The 7.62 mm belly gun turret[99] is remotely operated by a gunner inside the aircraft, who acquires targets with a separate pod using color television and forward looking infrared[100] imagery.

U.S. Naval Air Systems Command is working on upgrades to increase the maximum speed from 250 knots (460 km/h; 290 mph) to 270 knots (500 km/h; 310 mph), increase helicopter mode altitude limit from 10,000 feet (3,000 m) to 12,000 feet (3,700 m) or 14,000 feet (4,300 m), and increase lift performance.[55]

Operational history

US Marine Corps

Marine Corps crew training on the Osprey has been conducted by VMMT-204 since March 2000. On 3 June 2005, the Marine Corps helicopter squadron Marine Medium Helicopter 263 (HMM-263), stood down to begin the process of transitioning to the MV-22 Osprey.[56] On 8 December 2005, Lieutenant General Amos, commander of the II MEF, accepted the delivery of the first fleet of MV-22s, delivered to HMM-263. The unit reactivated on 3 March 2006 as the first MV-22 squadron and was redesignated VMM-263. On 31 August 2006, VMM-162 (the former HMM-162) followed suit. On 23 March 2007, HMM-266 became Marine Medium Tiltrotor Squadron 266 (VMM-266) at Marine Corps Air Station New River, North Carolina.[57][101][102][103][104][105][106][107][108][109]

The Osprey has been replacing existing CH-46 Sea Knight squadrons.[58] The MV-22 reached initial operational capability (IOC) with the U.S. Marine Corps on 13 June 2007.[1] On 10 July 2007 an MV-22 Osprey landed aboard the Royal Navy aircraft carrier, HMS Illustrious in the Atlantic Ocean. This marked the first time a V-22 had landed on any non-U.S. vessel.[59][110][111]

On 13 April 2007, the U.S. Marine Corps announced that it would be sending ten V-22 aircraft to Iraq, the Osprey s first combat deployment. Marine Corps Commandant, General James Conway, indicated that over 150 Marines would accompany the Osprey set for September deployment to Al-Asad Airfield.[60][61] On 17 September 2007, ten MV-22Bs of VMM-263 left for Iraq aboard the USS Wasp. The decision to use a ship rather than use the Osprey s self-deployment capability was made because of concerns over icing during the North Atlantic portion of the trip, lack of available KC-130s for mid-air refueling, and the availability of the USS Wasp.[62][112][113][114][115][116][117]

The Osprey has provided support in Iraq, racking up some 2,000 flight hours over three months with a mission capable availability rate of 68.1% as of late-January 2008.[63] They are primarily used in Iraq s western Anbar province for routine cargo and troop movements, and also for riskier “aero-scout” missions. General David Petraeus, the top U.S. military commander in Iraq, used one to fly around Iraq on Christmas Day 2007 to visit troops.[64] Then-presidential candidate Barack Obama also flew in Ospreys during his high profile 2008 tour of Iraq.[65][118][119][120][121][122]

The only major problem has been obtaining the necessary spare parts to maintain the aircraft.[66] The V-22 had flown 3,000 sorties totaling 5,200 hours in Iraq as of July 2008.[67] USMC leadership expect to deploy MV-22s to Afghanistan in 2009.[66][68] General George J. Trautman, III praised the increased range of the V-22 over the legacy helicopters in Iraq and said that “it turned his battle space from the size of Texas into the size of Rhode Island.”[69][123][124]

Naval Air Systems Command has devised a temporary fix for sailors to place portable heat shields under Osprey engines to prevent damage to the decks of some of the Navy s smaller amphibious ships, but they determined that a long term solution to the problem would require these decks be redesigned with heat resistant deck coatings, passive thermal barriers and changes in ship structure in order to operate V-22s and F-35Bs.[70][125]

A Government Accountability Office study reported that by January 2009 the Marines had 12 MV-22s operating in Iraq and they managed to successfully complete all assigned missions. The same report found that the V-22 deployments had mission capable rates averaging 57% to 68% and an overall full mission capable rate of only 6%. It also stated that the aircraft had shown weakness in situational awareness, maintenance, shipboard operations and the ability to transport troops and external cargo.[71] That study also concluded that the “deployments confirmed that the V-22 s enhanced speed and range enable personnel and internal cargo to be transported faster and farther than is possible with the legacy helicopters it is replacing”.[71][126]

The MV-22 saw its first offensive combat mission, Operation Cobra s Anger on 4 December 2009. Ospreys assisted in inserting 1,000 Marines and 150 Afghan troops into the Now Zad Valley of Helmand Province in southern Afghanistan to disrupt communication and supply lines of the Taliban.[38] In January 2010 the MV-22 Osprey is being sent to Haiti as part of Operation Unified Response relief efforts after the earthquake there. This will be the first use the Marine V-22 in a humanitarian mission.[72][127][128][129][130]

US Air Force

The Air Force s first operational CV-22 Osprey was delivered to the 58th Special Operations Wing (58th SOW) at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico on 20 March 2006. This and subsequent aircraft will become part of the 58th SOW s fleet of aircraft used for training pilots and crew members for special operations use.[73] On 16 November 2006, the Air Force officially accepted the CV-22 in a ceremony conducted at Hurlburt Field, Florida.[74][131][132][133][134]

The US Air Force s first operational deployment of the Osprey sent four CV-22s to Mali in November 2008 in support of Exercise Flintlock. The CV-22s flew nonstop from Hurlburt Field, Florida with in-flight refueling.[5] AFSOC declared that the 8th Special Operations Squadron reached Initial Operational Capability on 16 March 2009, with six of its planned nine CV-22s operational.[75][135][136]

In June 2009, CV-22s of the 8th Special Operations Squadron delivered 43,000 pounds (20,000 kg) of humanitarian supplies to remote villages in Honduras that were not accessible by conventional vehicles.[76] In November 2009, the 8th SO Squadron and its six CV-22s returned from a three-month deployment in Iraq.[77]

The first possible combat loss of an Osprey occurred on 9 April, 2010, as a CV-22 went down near Qalat, Zabul Province, Afghanistan, killing four.[78][79][137]

Potential operators

In 1999 the V-22 was studied for use in the United Kingdom s Royal Navy,[80] it has been raised several times as a candidate for the role of Maritime Airborne Surveillance and Control (MASC).[81][138]

Israel had shown interest in the purchase of MV-22s, but no order was placed.[82][83] Flightglobal reported in late 2009 that Israel has decided to wait for the CH-53K instead.[84][139][140]

The V-22 Osprey is a candidate for the Norwegian All Weather Search and Rescue Helicopter (NAWSARH) that is planned to replace the Westland Sea King Mk.43B of the Royal Norwegian Air Force in 2015.[85] The other candidates for the NAWSARH contract of 10-12 helicopters are AgustaWestland AW101 Merlin, Eurocopter EC225, NHIndustries NH90 and Sikorsky S-92.[86][141][142][143][144][145][146]

Bell Boeing has made an unsolicited offer of the V-22 for US Army medical evacuation needs.[87] However the Joint Personnel Recovery Agency issued a report that said that a common helicopter design would be needed for both combat recovery and medical evacuation and that the V-22 would not be suitable for recovery missions because of the difficulty of hoist operations and lack of self-defense capabilities.[88][147]

The US Navy remains a potential user of the V-22, but its role and mission with the Navy remains unclear. The latest proposal is to replace the C-2 Greyhound with the V-22 in the fleet logistics role. The V-22 would have the advantage of being able to land on and support non-carriers with rapid delivery of supplies and people between the ships of a taskforce or to ships on patrol beyond helicopter range.[89] Loren B. Thompson of the Lexington Institute has suggested V-22s for use in combat search and rescue and Marine One VIP transport, which also need replacement aircraft.[90][148][149][150][151]


Pre-production full-scale development aircraft used for flight testing. These are unofficially considered A-variants after 1993 redesign.[91]

The U.S. Navy considered an HV-22 to provide combat search and rescue, delivery and retrieval of special warfare teams along with fleet logistic support transport. However, it chose the MH-60S for this role in 1992.[92][152]

The proposed anti-submarine warfare Navy variant. The Navy studied the SV-22 in the 1980s to replace S-3 and SH-2 aircraft.[93][153][154]

Basic U.S. Marine Corps transport; original requirement for 552 (now 360). The Marine Corps is the lead service in the development of the V-22 Osprey. The Marine Corps variant, the MV-22B, is an assault transport for troops, equipment and supplies, capable of operating from ships or from expeditionary airfields ashore. It is replacing the Marine Corps CH-46E[57] and CH-53D.[94][155][156]

Air Force variant for the U.S. Special Operations Command (USSOCOM). It will conduct long-range, special operations missions, and is equipped with extra fuel tanks and terrain-following radar.[95][96][157]


United States[158]

United States Air Force[159]

8th Special Operations Squadron (8 SOS) at Hurlburt Field, Florida
71st Special Operations Squadron (71 SOS) at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico
20th Special Operations Squadron (20 SOS) at Cannon Air Force Base, New Mexico[160][161][162][163][164][165][166][167][168]

United States Marine Corps[169]

VMMT-204[177] Training squadron
VMX-22[178] Marine Tiltrotor Operational Test and Evaluation Squadron

Notable accidents

Main article: Accidents and incidents involving the V-22 Osprey[179]

From 1991 to 2000 there were four significant crashes, and a total of 30 fatalities, during testing.[32] Since becoming operational in 2007, the V-22 has had one possible combat loss due to an unknown cause, no losses due to accidents, and seven other notable, but minor, incidents.

On 11 June 1991, a mis-wired flight control system led to two minor injuries when the left nacelle struck the ground while the aircraft was hovering 15 feet (4.6 m) in the air, causing it to bounce and catch fire.[97][180]

On 20 July 1992, a leaking gearbox led to a fire in the right nacelle, causing the aircraft to drop into the Potomac River in front of an audience of Congressmen and other government officials at Quantico, killing all seven on board and grounding the aircraft for 11 months.[98][181][182]

On 8 April 2000, a V-22 loaded with Marines to simulate a rescue, attempted to land at Marana Northwest Regional Airport in Arizona, stalled when its right rotor entered vortex ring state, rolled over, crashed, and exploded, killing all 19 on board.[37][183][184]

On 11 December 2000, after a catastrophic hydraulic leak and subsequent software instrument failure, a V-22 fell 1,600 feet (490 m) into a forest in Jacksonville, North Carolina, killing all four aboard. This caused the Marine Corps to ground their fleet of eight V-22s, the second grounding that year.[99][100][185]

Specifications (MV-22B)

Data from Boeing Integrated Defense Systems,[101] Naval Air Systems Command,[102] US Air Force CV-22 fact sheet,[95] Norton,[103] and Bell[104][186][187][188][189]

General characteristics

Crew: Four (pilot, copilot and two flight engineers)
Capacity: 24 troops (seated), 32 troops (floor loaded) or up to 15,000 lb (6,800 kg) of cargo (dual hook)
Length: 57 ft 4 in (17.5 m)
Rotor diameter: 38 ft 0 in (11.6 m)
Wingspan: 45 ft 10 in (14 m)
Width with rotors: 84 ft 7 in (25.8 m)
Height: 22 ft 1 in/6.73 m; overall with nacelles vertical (17 ft 11 in/5.5 m; at top of tailfins)
Disc area: 2,268 ft (212 m )
Wing area: 301.4 ft (28 m )
Empty weight: 33,140 lb (15,032 kg)
Loaded weight: 47,500 lb (21,500 kg)
Max takeoff weight[190]: 60,500 lb (27,400 kg)
Powerplant: 2 Rolls-Royce Allison[191] T406/AE 1107C-Liberty[192] turboshafts[193], 6,150 hp (4,590 kW) each


Maximum speed[194]: 250 knots (460 km/h, 290 mph) at sea level / 305 kn (565 km/h; 351 mph) at 15,000 ft (4,600 m)[105][195]
Cruise speed[196]: 241 knots (277 mph, 446 km/h) at sea level
Range[197]: 879 nmi (1,011 mi, 1,627 km)
Combat radius[198]: 370 nmi (426 mi, 685 km)
Ferry range[199]: 1,940 nmi (with auxiliary internal fuel tanks)
Service ceiling[200]: 26,000 ft (7,925 m)
Rate of climb[201]: 2,320 ft/min (11.8 m/s)
Disc loading[202]: 20.9 lb/ft at 47,500 lb GW (102.23 kg/m )
Power/mass[203]: 0.259 hp/lb (427 W/kg)


1 M240 machine gun[204] on ramp, optional

Notable appearances in media

Main article: Aircraft in fiction#V-22 Osprey[205]

See also

Elizabeth A. Okoreeh-Baah[206], USMC first female to pilot a V-22 Osprey

Related development

Bell XV-15[106]
Bell/Agusta BA609
Bell Boeing Quad TiltRotor[207][208][209][210]

Comparable aircraft

Canadair CL-84
LTV XC-142[211][212]

Related lists

List of military aircraft of the United States
List of VTOL aircraft[213][214]



Markman, Steve and Bill Holder. “Bell/Boeing V-22 Osprey Tilt-Engine VTOL Transport (U.S.A.)”. Straight Up: A History of Vertical Flight. Schiffer Publishing, 2000. ISBN 0-7643-1204-9[215].
Norton, Bill. Bell Boeing V-22 Osprey, Tiltrotor Tactical Transport. Midland Publishing, 2004. ISBN 1-85780-165-2[216].

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: V-22 Osprey[217]

Official Boeing V-22 site[218]
Official Bell V-22 site[219]
V-22 Osprey web[220], and www.history.navy.mil/planes/v-22.html[221]
CV-22 fact sheet on USAF site[222]
Onward and Upward[225]
“Flight of the Osprey”[226], US Navy video of V-22 operations


  1. ^ brizzle born and bred (www.flickr.com)
  2. ^ brizzle born and bred (www.flickr.com)
  3. ^ www.youtube.com/watch?v=DIo_uJ2qiCI (www.youtube.com)
  4. ^ Chris Devers (www.flickr.com)
  5. ^ Wikipedia: Bell-Boeing V-22 Osprey (en.wikipedia.org)
  6. ^ Bell-Boeing V-22 Osprey (en.wikipedia.org)
  7. ^ tiltrotor (en.wikipedia.org)
  8. ^ aircraft (en.wikipedia.org)
  9. ^ VTOL (en.wikipedia.org)
  10. ^ STOL (en.wikipedia.org)
  11. ^ helicopter (en.wikipedia.org)
  12. ^ turboprop (en.wikipedia.org)
  13. ^ U.S. Department of Defense (en.wikipedia.org)
  14. ^ Bell Helicopter (en.wikipedia.org)
  15. ^ Boeing Helicopters (en.wikipedia.org)
  16. ^ United States Marine Corps (en.wikipedia.org)
  17. ^ U.S. Air Force (en.wikipedia.org)
  18. ^ 1 Development (en.wikipedia.org)
  19. ^ 1.1 Early development (en.wikipedia.org)
  20. ^ 1.2 Flight testing and design changes (en.wikipedia.org)
  21. ^ 1.3 Controversy (en.wikipedia.org)
  22. ^ 1.4 Recent development (en.wikipedia.org)
  23. ^ 2 Design (en.wikipedia.org)
  24. ^ 3 Operational history (en.wikipedia.org)
  25. ^ 3.1 US Marine Corps (en.wikipedia.org)
  26. ^ 3.2 US Air Force (en.wikipedia.org)
  27. ^ 3.3 Potential operators (en.wikipedia.org)
  28. ^ 4 Variants (en.wikipedia.org)
  29. ^ 5 Operators (en.wikipedia.org)
  30. ^ 6 Notable accidents (en.wikipedia.org)
  31. ^ 7 Specifications (MV-22B) (en.wikipedia.org)
  32. ^ 8 Notable appearances in media (en.wikipedia.org)
  33. ^ 9 See also (en.wikipedia.org)
  34. ^ 10 References (en.wikipedia.org)
  35. ^ 11 External links (en.wikipedia.org)
  36. ^ Iran hostage rescue mission (en.wikipedia.org)
  37. ^ U.S. Department of Defense (en.wikipedia.org)
  38. ^ U.S. Army (en.wikipedia.org)
  39. ^ A rospatiale (en.wikipedia.org)
  40. ^ Bell Helicopter (en.wikipedia.org)
  41. ^ Boeing Vertol (en.wikipedia.org)
  42. ^ Grumman (en.wikipedia.org)
  43. ^ Lockheed (en.wikipedia.org)
  44. ^ Westland (en.wikipedia.org)
  45. ^ Bell XV-15 (en.wikipedia.org)
  46. ^ Rolls-Royce (en.wikipedia.org)
  47. ^ Bush administration (en.wikipedia.org)
  48. ^ USS Wasp (en.wikipedia.org)
  49. ^ Naval Air Station Patuxent River (en.wikipedia.org)
  50. ^ Maryland (en.wikipedia.org)
  51. ^ low rate initial production (en.wikipedia.org)
  52. ^ USS Saipan (en.wikipedia.org)
  53. ^ M777 howitzer (en.wikipedia.org)
  54. ^ GAU-19 (en.wikipedia.org)
  55. ^ Gatling gun (en.wikipedia.org)
  56. ^ Defense Secretary (en.wikipedia.org)
  57. ^ Dick Cheney (en.wikipedia.org)
  58. ^ Congress (en.wikipedia.org)
  59. ^ Marine Corps Air Station New River (en.wikipedia.org)
  60. ^ autorotation (en.wikipedia.org)
  61. ^ feet (en.wikipedia.org)
  62. ^ C-130 (en.wikipedia.org)
  63. ^ vortex ring state (en.wikipedia.org)
  64. ^ a deadly V-22 accident (en.wikipedia.org)
  65. ^ Gatling gun (en.wikipedia.org)
  66. ^ Marine Corps Commandant (en.wikipedia.org)
  67. ^ General James L. Jones (en.wikipedia.org)
  68. ^ War in Afghanistan (en.wikipedia.org)
  69. ^ Time Magazine (en.wikipedia.org)
  70. ^ Pentagon (en.wikipedia.org)
  71. ^ proprotor (en.wikipedia.org)
  72. ^ nacelle (en.wikipedia.org)
  73. ^ powered lift (en.wikipedia.org)
  74. ^ Federal Aviation Administration (en.wikipedia.org)
  75. ^ STOL (en.wikipedia.org)
  76. ^ Tiltwing (en.wikipedia.org)
  77. ^ Tiltrotor (en.wikipedia.org)
  78. ^ glass cockpit (en.wikipedia.org)
  79. ^ Multi-function displays (en.wikipedia.org)
  80. ^ FLIR (en.wikipedia.org)
  81. ^ TACAN (en.wikipedia.org)
  82. ^ VOR (en.wikipedia.org)
  83. ^ ILS (en.wikipedia.org)
  84. ^ GPS (en.wikipedia.org)
  85. ^ INS (en.wikipedia.org)
  86. ^ CH-46X (en.wikipedia.org)
  87. ^ fly-by-wire (en.wikipedia.org)
  88. ^ nacelles (en.wikipedia.org)
  89. ^ swashplate (en.wikipedia.org)
  90. ^ flaperons (en.wikipedia.org)
  91. ^ M240 (en.wikipedia.org)
  92. ^ 7.62x51mm NATO (en.wikipedia.org)
  93. ^ .308 (en.wikipedia.org)
  94. ^ caliber (en.wikipedia.org)
  95. ^ .50 in caliber (en.wikipedia.org)
  96. ^ machine gun (en.wikipedia.org)
  97. ^ GAU-19 (en.wikipedia.org)
  98. ^ BAE Systems (en.wikipedia.org)
  99. ^ gun turret (en.wikipedia.org)
  100. ^ forward looking infrared (en.wikipedia.org)
  101. ^ VMMT-204 (en.wikipedia.org)
  102. ^ squadron (en.wikipedia.org)
  103. ^ Marine Medium Helicopter 263 (en.wikipedia.org)
  104. ^ Lieutenant General Amos (en.wikipedia.org)
  105. ^ II MEF (en.wikipedia.org)
  106. ^ VMM-263 (en.wikipedia.org)
  107. ^ VMM-162 (en.wikipedia.org)
  108. ^ VMM-266 (en.wikipedia.org)
  109. ^ North Carolina (en.wikipedia.org)
  110. ^ CH-46 Sea Knight (en.wikipedia.org)
  111. ^ HMS Illustrious (en.wikipedia.org)
  112. ^ Marine Corps Commandant (en.wikipedia.org)
  113. ^ General James Conway (en.wikipedia.org)
  114. ^ Al-Asad Airfield (en.wikipedia.org)
  115. ^ VMM-263 (en.wikipedia.org)
  116. ^ USS Wasp (en.wikipedia.org)
  117. ^ mid-air refueling (en.wikipedia.org)
  118. ^ Iraq (en.wikipedia.org)
  119. ^ Anbar province (en.wikipedia.org)
  120. ^ David Petraeus (en.wikipedia.org)
  121. ^ Barack Obama (en.wikipedia.org)
  122. ^ 2008 tour of Iraq (en.wikipedia.org)
  123. ^ Afghanistan (en.wikipedia.org)
  124. ^ George J. Trautman, III (en.wikipedia.org)
  125. ^ Naval Air Systems Command (en.wikipedia.org)
  126. ^ Government Accountability Office (en.wikipedia.org)
  127. ^ Operation Cobra s Anger (en.wikipedia.org)
  128. ^ Helmand Province (en.wikipedia.org)
  129. ^ Taliban (en.wikipedia.org)
  130. ^ Operation Unified Response (en.wikipedia.org)
  131. ^ 58th Special Operations Wing (en.wikipedia.org)
  132. ^ Kirtland Air Force Base (en.wikipedia.org)
  133. ^ New Mexico (en.wikipedia.org)
  134. ^ Hurlburt Field (en.wikipedia.org)
  135. ^ Mali (en.wikipedia.org)
  136. ^ 8th Special Operations Squadron (en.wikipedia.org)
  137. ^ Qalat, Zabul Province (en.wikipedia.org)
  138. ^ Royal Navy (en.wikipedia.org)
  139. ^ Israel (en.wikipedia.org)
  140. ^ CH-53K (en.wikipedia.org)
  141. ^ Westland Sea King Mk.43B (en.wikipedia.org)
  142. ^ Royal Norwegian Air Force (en.wikipedia.org)
  143. ^ AgustaWestland AW101 Merlin (en.wikipedia.org)
  144. ^ Eurocopter EC225 (en.wikipedia.org)
  145. ^ NHIndustries NH90 (en.wikipedia.org)
  146. ^ Sikorsky S-92 (en.wikipedia.org)
  147. ^ medical evacuation (en.wikipedia.org)
  148. ^ C-2 Greyhound (en.wikipedia.org)
  149. ^ Lexington Institute (en.wikipedia.org)
  150. ^ combat search and rescue (en.wikipedia.org)
  151. ^ Marine One (en.wikipedia.org)
  152. ^ MH-60S (en.wikipedia.org)
  153. ^ S-3 (en.wikipedia.org)
  154. ^ SH-2 (en.wikipedia.org)
  155. ^ CH-46E (en.wikipedia.org)
  156. ^ CH-53D (en.wikipedia.org)
  157. ^ U.S. Special Operations Command (en.wikipedia.org)
  158. ^ United States (en.wikipedia.org)
  159. ^ United States Air Force (en.wikipedia.org)
  160. ^ 8th Special Operations Squadron (en.wikipedia.org)
  161. ^ Hurlburt Field (en.wikipedia.org)
  162. ^ Florida (en.wikipedia.org)
  163. ^ 71st Special Operations Squadron (en.wikipedia.org)
  164. ^ Kirtland Air Force Base (en.wikipedia.org)
  165. ^ New Mexico (en.wikipedia.org)
  166. ^ 20th Special Operations Squadron (en.wikipedia.org)
  167. ^ Cannon Air Force Base (en.wikipedia.org)
  168. ^ New Mexico (en.wikipedia.org)
  169. ^ United States Marine Corps (en.wikipedia.org)
  170. ^ VMM-161 (en.wikipedia.org)
  171. ^ VMM-162 (en.wikipedia.org)
  172. ^ VMM-261 (en.wikipedia.org)
  173. ^ VMM-263 (en.wikipedia.org)
  174. ^ VMM-264 (en.wikipedia.org)
  175. ^ VMM-266 (en.wikipedia.org)
  176. ^ VMM-365 (en.wikipedia.org)
  177. ^ VMMT-204 (en.wikipedia.org)
  178. ^ VMX-22 (en.wikipedia.org)
  179. ^ Accidents and incidents involving the V-22 Osprey (en.wikipedia.org)
  180. ^ flight control system (en.wikipedia.org)
  181. ^ Potomac River (en.wikipedia.org)
  182. ^ Quantico (en.wikipedia.org)
  183. ^ Marana Northwest Regional Airport (en.wikipedia.org)
  184. ^ Arizona (en.wikipedia.org)
  185. ^ [100] (en.wikipedia.org)
  186. ^ [101] (en.wikipedia.org)
  187. ^ [102] (en.wikipedia.org)
  188. ^ [103] (en.wikipedia.org)
  189. ^ [104] (en.wikipedia.org)
  190. ^ Max takeoff weight (en.wikipedia.org)
  191. ^ Rolls-Royce Allison (en.wikipedia.org)
  192. ^ T406/AE 1107C-Liberty (en.wikipedia.org)
  193. ^ turboshafts (en.wikipedia.org)
  194. ^ Maximum speed (en.wikipedia.org)
  195. ^ [105] (en.wikipedia.org)
  196. ^ Cruise speed (en.wikipedia.org)
  197. ^ Range (en.wikipedia.org)
  198. ^ Combat radius (en.wikipedia.org)
  199. ^ Ferry range (en.wikipedia.org)
  200. ^ Service ceiling (en.wikipedia.org)
  201. ^ Rate of climb (en.wikipedia.org)
  202. ^ Disc loading (en.wikipedia.org)
  203. ^ Power/mass (en.wikipedia.org)
  204. ^ M240 machine gun (en.wikipedia.org)
  205. ^ Aircraft in fiction#V-22 Osprey (en.wikipedia.org)
  206. ^ Elizabeth A. Okoreeh-Baah (en.wikipedia.org)
  207. ^ Bell XV-15 (en.wikipedia.org)
  208. ^ [106] (en.wikipedia.org)
  209. ^ Bell/Agusta BA609 (en.wikipedia.org)
  210. ^ Bell Boeing Quad TiltRotor (en.wikipedia.org)
  211. ^ Canadair CL-84 (en.wikipedia.org)
  212. ^ LTV XC-142 (en.wikipedia.org)
  213. ^ List of military aircraft of the United States (en.wikipedia.org)
  214. ^ List of VTOL aircraft (en.wikipedia.org)
  215. ^ ISBN 0-7643-1204-9 (en.wikipedia.org)
  216. ^ ISBN 1-85780-165-2 (en.wikipedia.org)
  217. ^ V-22 Osprey (commons.wikimedia.org)
  218. ^ Official Boeing V-22 site (www.boeing.com)
  219. ^ Official Bell V-22 site (www.bellhelicopter.com)
  220. ^ V-22 Osprey web (www.navair.navy.mil)
  221. ^ www.history.navy.mil/planes/v-22.html (www.history.navy.mil)
  222. ^ CV-22 fact sheet on USAF site (www.af.mil)
  223. ^ www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/aircraft/v-22.htm (www.globalsecurity.org)
  224. ^ www.airforce-technology.com/projects/osprey/ (www.airforce-technology.com)
  225. ^ Onward and Upward (www.findarticles.com)
  226. ^ “Flight of the Osprey” (www.navair.navy.mil)

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