March 10, 2016 News
A fortnightly resource for anti-racist and social justice campaigns, highlighting key events in the UK and Europe.
25 February: Home Office statistics reveal that the number of unaccompanied asylum seeking children has increased by over 50 per cent in the last year, with 3,043 children seeking asylum in 2015, compared with 1,945 in 2014. The number being refused asylum is also increasing. (Children & Young People Now, 26 February 2016)
25 February: An increased caseload in immigration courts and a falling number of judges has led to unacceptable delays , according to the annual tribunals report by president Sir Ernest Ryder (Law Gazette, 26 February 2016)
29 February: Chief Inspector of Prisons, Peter Clarke, calls for a limit on how long people can be held at immigration removal centres after finding that eighteen detainees at Harmondsworth had been held for more than one year. Download the report here. (Guardian, 1 March 2016)
1 March: Allegations that asylum seekers in Glasgow faced being locked out of their homes after their applications were turned down, in breach of guidelines, are to be investigated by MPs. (Guardian, 1 March 2016)
2 March: A Sudanese asylum seeker is found dead in his tent in the Jungle camp in Calais, France. He was diabetic and it is believed he died after suffering a heart attack. His is the third death in the camp in Calais since the start of the year. (Passeurs d hospitalit s, 8 March 2016)
4 March: The House of Commons Home Affairs Committee publishes an investigation into asylum housing which finds local authorities unwilling to take part in a dispersal scheme for asylum seekers, who are housed in low-cost housing areas such as Glasgow, Stoke and Middlesbrough. Download the report here. (Guardian, 4 March 2016)
7 March: The first international-standard refugee camp opens in Grande-Synthe, near Dunkirk in France, built by Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) with the support of the local town hall. The local mayor Damien Careme states that It s a great day for human solidarity I ve overcome a failure of the state . Immediately after the opening, French authorities seek to close the camp down, citing building standards. (Medecins Sans Frontieres, 9 March 2016)
8 March: An inspection by HM Inspector of Prisons of three short-term holding centres in Folkestone and Dover, including a freight shed, finds that migrants arriving in unprecedented numbers were held in poorly ventilated, smelly conditions, in some cases forced to sleep on concrete floors, and kept hungry. Download the report here. (KentOnline, 8 March 2016)
Violence and harassment
21 February: Police say that they are treating a suspected petrol-bomb attack, on a building of multi-occupancy flats for asylum seekers in Liverpool, as potentially racially motivated. (Liverpool Echo, 24 February 2016)
29 February: Dale Jones, 30, is told he must serve a minimum of 32 years in prison for the sickening racist murder of 81-year-old Mushin Ahmed in Rotherham last year. Another 30-year-old man, Damien Hunt, is jailed for 14 years for Mr Ahmed s manslaughter. (Asian Image, 29 February 2016)
1 March: Essex Police obtain an Injunction to Prevent Nuisance and Annoyance (IPNA) against Colchester man Robert Green, 57, to stop him racially attacking and abusing his neighbours, many of whom are elderly. (Maldon and Burham Standard, 8 March 2016)
3 March: A Zimbabwean family s new home in Wigan, specially adapted for their disabled child, has been targeted by racists, which has resulted in the family refusing to move in. Racist graffiti has been painted, windows smashed and their car tyres slashed. (Wigan Today, 3 March 2016)
4 March: Simon Lawrie, 31, is given an 18-month suspended prison sentence, 150 hours of unpaid work and ordered to pay 500 compensation after admitting a racially aggravated assault on a pizza delivery driver in Pontefract who was left with a broken jaw and cheekbone. (Yorkshire Evening Post, 4 March 2016)
6 March: Figures reveal that 650 racist attacks, abuse and graffiti on London s rail network have been reported since 2013 with only 13 arrests made following investigations. (Evening Standard, 6 March 2016)
Policing and criminal justice
22 February: An investigation into UK police services by the Traveller Movement, using freedom of information laws, reveals that less than one in five record and monitor their interactions with Romany Gypsies and Irish Travellers. (Travellers Times, 22 February 2016)
26 February: The Home Office publishes details of an Independent review of deaths and serious incidents in police custody . View the consultation documents here. The consultation closes on 6 May 2015.
1 March: Following a second investigation into the 2008 death of Sean Rigg in police custody in Brixton, the Independent Police Complaints Commission (IPCC) refers the case to the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) for consideration of criminal charges against five police officers. (Independent, 2 March 2016)
1 March: The South Yorkshire Police and Crime Commissioner (PCC) publishes the report of a review conducted by Andrew Lockley and Imam Mohammad Ismail: Policing protests in Rotherham: Towards a new approach. Download the report here.
2 March: The IPCC rules that a Metropolitan Police investigation into racist comments about Gypsies and Travellers on a secret Facebook group for serving and retired police officers called I ve met the Met was not thorough enough, since it had failed to contact any of the officers using the group. (Travellers Times, 3 March 2016)
2 March: The IPCC publishes reports on its involvement in a number of aspects related to investigations by the Metropolitan Police Service into the murder of Stephen Lawrence . View and download the reports here.
4 March: Following freedom of information requests, the Morning Star reveals that in 1976, undercover officers followed Grunwick strikers from picket lines to meetings, with detailed reports of the strikes and of anybody showing solidarity with the strikers. View and download the documents here. (Morning Star, 4 March 2016)
7 March: The Home Office publishes the results of a consultation on reforming the IPCC, which will be renamed the Office for Police Conduct. View the policy documents here. (Guardian, 7 March 2016)
8 March: An inquest jury finds that restraint and communications failures led to the death of 57-year-old Philmore Mills at Wexham Park Hospital in Slough in December 2011 after he was restrained by police and hospital staff. The coroner calls for a national review of police restraint. (Guardian, 8 March 2016)
9 March: The IPCC sends a file to the CPS into the death of Leon Briggs at Luton police station in November 2013 after his detention under the Mental Health Act. The CPS must consider whether to bring charges against a police detention officer and five police officers involved in his death. (Luton on Sunday, 9 March 2016)
27 February: Far-right protesters, the North-West Infidels, are escorted out of Liverpool by police after attempting to hold a demonstration where they are outnumbered by anti-fascists. (Liverpool Echo, 27 February 2016)
9 March: EDL Newark Division organiser, Chris Conry, 26, pleads guilty to racially aggravated offences and is given a 12-month supervision order and 200 hours of community service after damaging the property of Eyup Sepet in Newark. (Newark Advertiser, 9 March 2016)
6 March: In local elections in Hesse, Alternative for Germany wins an average of 13.2 per cent of the vote, the anti-immigration party s best ever result in western Germany. In the small town of Leun, the neo-nazi National Democratic Party of Germany wins 17 per cent of the vote, and 14 per cent in B dingen, home to the largest refugee shelter in Hesse. (The Local, 7 March 2016)
6 March: The far-right Slovak National Party gains 8.6 per cent of the vote in the general election. People s Party Our Slovakia makes its first election breakthrough with 8 per cent of the vote. (Politico, 7 March 2016)
25 February: Laolu Opebiyi is removed from a flight to Amsterdam at Luton airport when a passenger reports him to staff and police after seeing a message about a prayer [group] on his phone. (Guardian, 3 March 2016)
1 March: The Independent looks at how tax and immigration officers are among those who will be allowed to hack into people s phones when the Investigatory Powers Bill, handing over huge new powers to public bodies, becomes law. (Independent, 1 March 2016)
Grunwick s newspaper (credit: IRR Black History Collection)
1 March: A new law to regulate Islam comes into force in Austria. Muslim groups cannot accept money from foreign funders and must adopt a written code agreeing to foster a positive attitude towards the state and society . (EuroActiv, 3 March 2016)
6 March: A study reveals that 61 per cent of Paddy Power s 349 betting shops are concentrated in poorer parts of England with a greater ethnic mix. They are believed to deliberately target these communities, who are susceptible to the addictive play enabled by fixed odds betting terminals. (Guardian, 6 March 2016)
19 February: Amnesty International publishes a report: Obstacle Course: How the UK s National Contact Point handles human rights complaints under the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises, showing how multinationals are regularly let off the hook for human rights abuses. Download the report here.
9 March: Rhodes Must Fall campaigners hold a march for decolonisation through Oxford as part of their continuing campaign to get the Cecil Rhodes statue removed from Oriel College. (Guardian, 9 March 2016)
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- ^ here (www.parliament.uk)
- ^ here (www.irr.org.uk)
- ^ Guardia (www.theguardian.com)
- ^ Independent on Sunday (www.independent.co.uk)
- ^ here (www.justiceinspectorates.gov.uk)
- ^ Guardian (www.theguardian.com)
- ^ Guardian (www.theguardian.com)
- ^ Ekathimerin (www.ekathimerini.com)
- ^ Guardian (www.theguardian.com)
- ^ Lacuna (lacuna.org.uk)
- ^ Passeurs d hospitalit s (passeursdhospitalites.wordpress.com)
- ^ here (righttoremain.org.uk)
- ^ here (www.apple.com)
- ^ Guardian (www.apple.com)
- ^ here (www.publications.parliament.uk)
- ^ here (www.apple.com)
- ^ BBC News (www.bbc.co.uk)
- ^ Guardian (www.theguardian.com)
- ^ Medecins Sans Frontieres (www.msf.org)
- ^ here (www.justiceinspectorates.gov.uk)
- ^ KentOnline (www.kentonline.co.uk)
- ^ Liverpool Echo (www.liverpoolecho.co.uk)
- ^ BBC News (www.bbc.co.uk)
- ^ Asian Image, (www.asianimage.co.uk)
- ^ Ekathimerini (www.ekathimerini.com)
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- ^ Wigan Today (www.wigantoday.net)
- ^ Yorkshire Evening Post (www.yorkshireeveningpost.co.uk)
- ^ Evening Standard (www.standard.co.uk)
- ^ Travellers Times, (travellerstimes.org.uk)
- ^ here (www.gov.uk)
- ^ Independent (www.independent.co.uk)
- ^ here (www.southyorkshire-pcc.gov.uk)
- ^ Travellers Times (travellerstimes.org.uk)
- ^ here (www.irr.org.uk)
- ^ here (www.ipcc.gov.uk)
- ^ here (www.parliament.uk)
- ^ here (specialbranchfiles.uk)
- ^ Morning Star (morningstaronline.co.uk)
- ^ here (www.gov.uk)
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- ^ here (cageuk.org)
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- ^ here (www.scottishrefugeecouncil.org.uk)
- ^ EuroActiv (www.euractiv.com)
- ^ Guardian (www.theguardian.com)
- ^ here (www.amnesty.org.uk)
- ^ Guardian (www.apple.com)
THE final report from the Parliamentary Committee which has been considering the Hybrid Bill authorising Phase 1 of HS2 has ‘failed to deliver’, according to critics. The Committee heard nearly 1,600 petitions against the Bill, and its final recommendations include a longer Chilterns bored tunnel with a north portal at South Heath, greater noise protection for Wendover and amendments to the discretionary compensation schemes. The Committee is also calling for a remodelled maintenance depot at Washwood Heath in Birmingham to make the most of local job opportunities and better construction arrangements at Hillingdon in west London.
The purpose of the Committee was to hear objections to particular provisions, but not to consider opposition to the Bill in principle. The Committee was chaired by MP Robert Syms, who said: “With this report on Phase One of the High Speed Rail programme, we have endeavoured to add substantial environmental, social and design benefits to the scheme, in balance with good use of public money and a viable engineering design.”
The conclusions have also been welcomed in Whitehall. Transport minister Robert Goodwill said: “We will consider carefully the recommendations in the report and respond shortly. I also recognise the demands this process has placed on petitioners. We have listened to those affected by the scheme and in many cases we have been able to make the changes they have been calling for. I am happy to say that HS2 remains firmly on schedule, and today s report marks another significant step towards getting spades in the ground for this transformational project.”
The main criticism so far has come from promoters of alternative proposals, rather than the scheme’s traditional opponents. One promoter, Lord Tony Berkeley, who backs the ‘Euston Express’ concept and also chairs the Rail Freight Group, commented: “Euston Express is disappointed that the Commons Select committee chose to ignore the inaccurate evidence given by HS2 about our Euston Express scheme. E Ex puts all HS2 and West Coast Main Line trains on to the WCML tracks from Queens Park inwards and avoids the high cost, massive disruption and demolition to streets to the west of the line and at Euston itself. Euston Express, supported by a number of rail professionals, believes that the existing station can be adapted to accommodate all these trains without taking additional land.”
The Rail Freight Group itself has expressed doubts about the implications for freight in the wake of the report, arguing that ‘HS2 and Government have displayed a lack of ambition and urgency in confirming that use of released capacity on the West Coast Main Line would benefit rail freight’.
RFG executive director Maggie Simpson said: HS2 is a vital project for rail freight growth but if we are to deliver the expected benefits for the sector, and the UK economy, we need clarity now on how released capacity will be used. We look forward to progressing discussions with HS2 and Government over coming months to ensure that a suitable framework is established giving the necessary confidence to the sector to support future investment. The report has also received a bleak reception from HSUK, which has suggested an alternative route for a high speed line north of London mainly following motorway corridors and providing a slightly lower maximum speed of 360km/h rather than the 400km/h of HS2. The group condemned the report from the Bill Committee because it had ‘failed to deliver’. A spokesman for the group said: It beggars belief that this committee, chaired incidentally by a Poole MP who has no dog in this fight, can blithely nod through a scheme that will have devastating effect on the English countryside and whose top speed is pure fantasy.
We note it is buried within the report that Euston station and Camden alone will face 17 years of disruption. We doubt very much if many Camden residents are desperate to rush to the north of England by High Speed train.
A ten-year-old with a Hornby trainset knows that these high speeds demand exacting track sophistication and that the costs rise exponentially as the proposed speeds rise. To be blunt even if HS2 ever gets built, the costs involved in delivering these high speeds would be prohibitive not that the current government will be concerned, as they will be long gone.
The other stunning failure in logic, and we lay this firmly at Chancellor George Osborne s door, is that instead of delivering businesspeople from London to the North to revitalise these economies, the opposite will happen. Northern business would simply come to London thus inflating that economy even further and creating ever larger regional discrepancies.
Meanwhile, an event is being held in Westminster today as part of the campaign by the City of Liverpool to be connected to HS2 by a 32km extension. Key figures at this event include National Infrastructure Commission chair Lord Adonis, the mayor of Liverpool Joe Anderson and chair of the Transport Select Committee Louise Ellman.
With the HS2 Hybrid Bill at the end of its Committee stage, it will now return to the Commons before being sent on to a Public Bill Committee. The Report Stage and the Third Reading will follow.
Table of Contents
1 When Trucks Stop Running, America Stops
2 Shipping Makes the World Go Round
From Sail to Steamships
The Container Ship Revolution
Ninety Percent of Global Trade Is Carried by Ships and Barges
3 Why You Should Love Trains
Trains Consume Less Fuel Yet Carry More Goods Than Trucks
A Brief History of Railroads
So Why Not Build More Railroad Tracks to Conserve Oil?
Who s Going to Pay for It?
4 Why You Should Love Trucks
5 The Oiliness of Everything: Invisible Oil and Energy Payback Time
How Energy is Used in the U.S. Economy
Energy Return on Investment or EROI
When You Do an EROI Analysis, Clearly a Low EROI Is a Problem
6 Peak Oil and Transportation
Risks and Risk Management
Peak Oil May Be Less Than 20 Years Away
Oil Field Decline Rates
Where Will Additional Oil Come From?
Other Threats to Oil Supplies for the Transportation System
7 Distributing Drop-in Fuels: The Fastest Road to Something Else
Next Stop: Service Stations
Cost to Create Drop-in Fuel
Railroads Can t Afford to Replace Their Locomotives
Conclusion: Time Is Running Out
8 Post Fossil Fuels, If Biomass Is the Answer to Everything, Is There Enough?
9 Hydrogen, the Homeopathic Energy Crisis Remedy
10 Natural Gas A Bridge Fuel to Where Exactly?
Economic Peak Natural Gas and Tight Oil?
Import Liquid Natural Gas?
Or Export LNG? America s Newfound Energy Independence
Is There Enough Natural Gas for Transportation?
11 Liquefied Coal: There Goes the Neighborhood, the Water, and the Air
The Future of CTL: How Much Diesel Could Be Made from Coal?
World and U.S. Peak Coal May Have Happened, or Will Soon
12 Who Killed the All-Electric Car?
So Why Isn t There a Better Battery? All-Electric Autos
13 Can Freight Trains Be Electrified?
D oh! Why Electrify? Diesel-Electric Locomotives Already Are
Electric and More Efficient Than All-Electric Locomotives!
Electrify with Batteries? Been There, Done That. It Didn t Work Out
Other Issues with Electrification
Europe s Freight Trains Are Inferior. Why Copy Them?
Electrify Just the Busiest Corridors
14 All-Electric Trucks Using Batteries or Overhead Wires
Battery-Electric (BEV) Trucks
WAAAAY Too Expensive
Trucks Running on Overhead Wires (Catenary)
15 Overview of the Electric Grid: Herding Lightning
16 The Electric Grid Trembles When Wind and Solar Join the High Wire Act
Where Will Tomorrow s Power Come from?
There Is No Free Lunch
The Electric Grid Trembles When Wind & Solar Join the High Wire Act
A National Super-Grid ?
Wind and Solar Don t Replace Conventional Power, They just Add to the Blaze
How Much Intermittent Wind and Solar Penetration can the Grid Handle?
17 The Electric Blues: Energy Storage for Calm and Cloudy Days
More Wind Power and the Short-Term Storage to Make that Happen
Longer Term Storage
Storage Goal: One Day of U.S. Electricity Power Generation
Pumped Hydro Storage (PHS)
Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES)
Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) with Thermal Energy
Battery Energy Storage at Grid Scale Is Limited by Materials
18 Other Truck Stoppers: Mother Nature
Rust and Corrosion
The Water-Energy-Transportation Nexus
Nuclear Power Plants
19 U.S. Energy Policy: Oil Wars and Drill-Baby-Drill to Keep Autos Running?
Cars and Light Trucks Are a Huge Part of the Problem, Using 63 Percent of Transportation Oil
Energy Policy: Cars
Wars Keep the Oil Flowing
20 Where Are We Headed?
Hubbert s Curve is More Like a Cliff
Setting National Priorities for How Petroleum Is Used
Food Distribution: Putting Food on the Table
Isaac Asimov and Admiral Hyman Rickover on Energy Descent
Isaac Asimov, the Future of Humanity, 1974
Admiral Hyman Rickover, Energy Resources and Our Future, 1957
More Research on How to Get the Most Bang for the Energy Buck
Shouting into the Wind
Preface: Running on Empty
Even as a child, I was interested in oil. When I was 10 years old, Dad drove us into the hot oven of Death Valley in a dark blue car with black seats and no air-conditioning. We were being cooked alive. The gas gauge crept toward empty for what seemed like hours. I thought, for sure, we were going to run out of gas. Cockroaches may be able to survive this heat, but I am not a bug! I will never forget finally pulling into the gas station, the drinking fountain getting ever closer until, at last, I felt the delicious chill of water in my throat. Dad gassed up the car, and all was well with the world. A decade later, it looked like civilization itself was running on empty as the energy crisis of 1973 took over our lives. I was in college, and joined an alternate technology group. We watched engineers build electric cars, windmills, and convert a car to run on methanol. I got to help build a solar collector by drinking beer and painting the cans black. Saving the planet was not only going to be fun, it was going to be a party!
It wasn t long before non-OPEC oil was found and the Mideast turned their oil tap back on, and I stopped worrying about energy. Renewable power was on the way and the evil oil companies wouldn t be able to stop it. My grandfather, Professor Francis J. Pettijohn, was a seminal figure in sedimentary geology. Sedimentary basins that is where you find oil! Grandfather would try to educate me about the energy density of oil and the high hurdles blocking the path of alternate energy, but it wasn t until I read his memoir that my world view of running the planet on beer-can solar power changed. That s when I discovered that Grandpa had been a friend and mentor of M. King Hubbert, who predicted world peak oil production around the year 2000. Yikes! It was 2000. Had oil peaked yet? An Internet search led to a Pandora s box of Jay Hanson s die-off website, Yahoo group energy resources, and years later attending Association for the Study of Peak Oil conferences. I was a science writer and shifted my focus from natural history to energy-related topics, and have since then read hundreds of books and thousands of articles on energy from within the U.C. Berkeley library system. Earlier in my life, to pay the mortgage I designed and architected software systems, which I learned how to do at Electronic Data Systems after rigorous training in analysis and assembler programming working on the Medicare system, followed by a stint at Bank of America in the check processing division, and finally 22 years at American President Lines (APL). As a systems engineer, you need to have both a big picture and detailed understanding of the business framework before designing a new system. Inevitably, everything is connected.
APL was a global shipping line that also routed cargo on trucks and trains as well as helped customers with logistics, especially just-in-time freight and the fastest, most reliable delivery times possible within a continuous intermodal flow of containers across ships, trains, and trucks. APL was a leader in transportation and had the most extensive container ship system in the U.S. by the late 1960s, and partnered with rail to start the StackTrain service, containers stacked double high on railcars, tremendously increasing the efficiency of trains and reducing fuel consumption. All of the APL computer systems needed to be up 24 7, everywhere, or ships, trucks, and trains would stop as Bills of Lading, manifests, and dozens of other legal documents could not be produced. Around the clock, everything from military supplies for the 1991 Gulf War to running shoes was kept on the move with as little waiting time as possible between modes of transportation. When a new project came along, I needed to understand how long it would take and how many staff were needed to make sure an improvement didn t cost more than the money saved. This is very much like the energy returned on invested analysis performed to make sure more fossil energy isn t invested than returned on a given technology or project.
In business, this kind of analysis is essential to prevent bankruptcy. Yet when scientists find oil, coal, and natural gas production likely to peak within decades, rather than centuries, or that ethanol, solar photovoltaic, tar sands, oil shale, and other alternative energy resources have a low or even negative energy return on the energy invested, they are ignored and called pessimists, no matter how solid their findings. For every one of their peer-reviewed papers, there are thousands of positive press releases with breakthroughs that never pan out, and economists promising perpetual growth and energy independence. Optimism is more important than facts. And, it s essential for attracting investors. Civilization as we know it depends on our global transportation system of ships, trains, and trucks, all of which are fueled by oil. Since oil reserves are finite, one day supplies will be diminished to where the cost of moving freight and goods with our present oil-fueled fleet will not pencil out. We have an oil glut in 2015 and a corresponding lack of urgency. Yet, inevitably the day will come when oil supplies decline. What will we do? What are our options? That is the sobering reality this book will explore. Using my transportation knowledge and the analytical skills I learned during my 27-year career as a systems engineer, my science background (B.S. in Biology with a Chemistry and Physics minor from the University of Illinois), and what I have learned over what is now 15 years of energy research, I will look at the vulnerabilities of our current commercial transportation sector.
Everything in our homes, everything in our stores, got there on a truck at some point. Before that, many of those goods also were transported by ship and/or train. Come the day that oil is no longer abundant and affordable, will the millions of trucks that make our way of life possible be able to keep on running? I ll look at the energy scenarios that could disrupt trucking, followed by overviews of the roles and respective energy efficiency of ships, railroads, and trucks the three modes of heavy-duty transportation essential to keeping industrial civilization running. After that there are three chapters on oil: how invisible yet necessary it is, peak oil risks, and the distribution of liquid fuels. Then the viability of alternative fuels that are already commercially developed to replace oil is considered: biofuels, hydrogen, natural gas, and liquefied coal. Another way transportation might continue without a diesel fuel substitute is electrification with batteries or overhead wires, the subject of the next chapters. If electricity is to be used to power transportation, then it is important to understand the issues that need to be solved as we migrate towards a 100 % renewable electric grid as fossil fuels decline. Finally I look at other issues that will affect transportation such as climate change, at U.S. government energy policy since the first energy crisis in 1973, and then conclude with how I see the road ahead. This book is very United States-centric, because the U.S. uses the most oil of any nation, is the most dependent on oil for transportation, and will be the most affected by oil decline. America is also the military superpower that keeps oil flowing from the Middle East (or at least thinks it does), where two-thirds of the remaining oil lies, to Europe and Asia. Finally, the U.S. is where I live.
We live in the Oil Age, and as oil declines, our lives will change. Eyes wide open, this book explores the way forward.
The book would need to be many hundreds of pages to cover commercial and noncommercial energy technology as much as I d like, but more information can be found here on my website, www.energyskeptic.com.
References in the Book
Below are the references cited in the book in alphabetical order, but I did far more research than this, and the book could have easily had a reference section much longer than the book itself.
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Energy storage system plan. City of Anaheim, CA: Public Utilities Department. Andrews, R. 2015. Renewable energy storage and power-to-methane. Energy Matters. http://euanmearns.com/renewable-energy-storage-and-power-to-methane/. ANL. 2002. Railroad and locomotive technology roadmap. Argonne National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy. APEC. 2011. Biofuel transportation and distribution. Singapore: Asia-pacific economic cooperation. Apple. 2015. Supplier List 2014. http://www.apple.com/supplier-responsibility/our-suppliers/. AQMD. 2015. WCC goods movement webinar. Overhead catenary system demonstration concept overview. West Coast Collaborative for South Coast Air quality management district. ASCE. 2013. Failure to act. The impact of current infrastructure investment on America s economic future. Reston: American Society of Civil Engineers. ASCE. 2013. Report card for America s infrastructure. American Society of Civil Engineers. Ashby, M.F. 2015. 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Additional material read but not cited in the book: