Driving To Deliver Your Business

alternative

Calendar of racism and resistance (26 February – 10 March 2016 …

March 10, 2016 News

Written by IRR News Team[1]

A fortnightly resource for anti-racist and social justice campaigns, highlighting key events in the UK and Europe.

Asylum

25 February: Home Office statistics reveal that the number of unaccompanied asylum seeking children has increased by over 50 per cent in the last year, with 3,043 children seeking asylum in 2015, compared with 1,945 in 2014. The number being refused asylum is also increasing. (Children & Young People Now[2], 26 February 2016)

25 February: An increased caseload in immigration courts and a falling number of judges has led to unacceptable delays , according to the annual tribunals report by president Sir Ernest Ryder (Law Gazette[3], 26 February 2016)

25 February: Stuart McDonald, MSP, tables an early day motion (EDM): Independent investigation into Compass asylum contracts . View the EDM here[4].

26 February: New research is published on: Government policy on the private rented housing sector (PRS) since 2010. Download it here[5] (pdf file, 96kb).

27 February: Home secretary Theresa May announces a new asylum strategy involving the grant of only minimal protection to all but the most deserving refugees. (Guardia[6]n, 27 February 2016)

27 February: Marches and protests in support of refugees rights take place in 120 cities in thirty-two countries. (Independent on Sunday[7], 28 February 2016)

29 February: Chief Inspector of Prisons, Peter Clarke, calls for a limit on how long people can be held at immigration removal centres after finding that eighteen detainees at Harmondsworth had been held for more than one year. Download the report here[8]. (Guardian[9], 1 March 2016)

29 February: Clashes erupt between police and migrants at the Calais jungle camp after authorities move in to dismantle parts of the site. (Guardian[10], 1 March 2016)

29 February: FYROM police fire tear gas at 300 migrants trying to cross the border from Greece. (Ekathimerin[11]i, 1 March 2016)

1 March: Allegations that asylum seekers in Glasgow faced being locked out of their homes after their applications were turned down, in breach of guidelines, are to be investigated by MPs. (Guardian[12], 1 March 2016)

1 March: Lacuna examines the death of Amir Siman-Tov in Colnbrook immigration removal centre, on 17 February 2016. (Lacuna[13], 1 March 2016)

2 March: A Sudanese asylum seeker is found dead in his tent in the Jungle camp in Calais, France. He was diabetic and it is believed he died after suffering a heart attack. His is the third death in the camp in Calais since the start of the year. (Passeurs d hospitalit s[14], 8 March 2016)

Calendar Of Racism And Resistance (26 February – 10 March 2016 ...3 March: Right to Remain publishes an updated version of its Toolkit: A guide to the UK immigration and asylum system and taking action for the right to remain . View the toolkit here[15].

4 March: The House of Commons Home Affairs Committee publishes an investigation into asylum housing which finds local authorities unwilling to take part in a dispersal scheme for asylum seekers, who are housed in low-cost housing areas such as Glasgow, Stoke and Middlesbrough. Download the report here[16]. (Guardian[17], 4 March 2016)

4 March: The House of Commons Committee of Public Accounts publishes: E-Borders and successor programmes. Download the report here[18] (pdf file, 277kb).

4 March: The Joint Council for the Welfare of Immigrants (JCWI) publishes: Right to Rent: A Tenant s Guide to the Landlord Immigration Checks. Download the guide here[19].

7 March: The BBC reports that migrants are being targeted by fraudsters claiming to be Home Office staff, who threaten them with deportation if they do not pay. (BBC News[20], 7 March 2016)

7 March: The UK sends troops to join a NATO operation in the Aegean sea to intercept and return people trying to reach Europe from Turkey. (Guardian[21], 7 March 2016)

7 March: The first international-standard refugee camp opens in Grande-Synthe, near Dunkirk in France, built by Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) with the support of the local town hall. The local mayor Damien Careme states that It s a great day for human solidarity I ve overcome a failure of the state . Immediately after the opening, French authorities seek to close the camp down, citing building standards. (Medecins Sans Frontieres[22], 9 March 2016)

8 March: An inspection by HM Inspector of Prisons of three short-term holding centres in Folkestone and Dover, including a freight shed, finds that migrants arriving in unprecedented numbers were held in poorly ventilated, smelly conditions, in some cases forced to sleep on concrete floors, and kept hungry. Download the report here[23]. (KentOnline[24], 8 March 2016)

Violence and harassment

21 February: Police say that they are treating a suspected petrol-bomb attack, on a building of multi-occupancy flats for asylum seekers in Liverpool, as potentially racially motivated. (Liverpool Echo[25], 24 February 2016)

27 February: A 31-year-old Asian man has part of his finger cut off with a meat cleaver during a racist attack by two white men as he uses a cashpoint in Rotherham. (BBC News[26], 28 February 2016)

29 February: Dale Jones, 30, is told he must serve a minimum of 32 years in prison for the sickening racist murder of 81-year-old Mushin Ahmed in Rotherham last year. Another 30-year-old man, Damien Hunt, is jailed for 14 years for Mr Ahmed s manslaughter. (Asian Image, 29 February 2016)Calendar Of Racism And Resistance (26 February – 10 March 2016 ...[27]

1 March: Arson investigators move in as a fire destroys a warehouse full of donated clothes and bedding for refugees on the Greek island of Kastelorizo. (Ekathimerini[28], 1 March 2016)

1 March: Essex Police obtain an Injunction to Prevent Nuisance and Annoyance (IPNA) against Colchester man Robert Green, 57, to stop him racially attacking and abusing his neighbours, many of whom are elderly. (Maldon and Burham Standard[29], 8 March 2016)

3 March: A Zimbabwean family s new home in Wigan, specially adapted for their disabled child, has been targeted by racists, which has resulted in the family refusing to move in. Racist graffiti has been painted, windows smashed and their car tyres slashed. (Wigan Today[30], 3 March 2016)

4 March: Simon Lawrie, 31, is given an 18-month suspended prison sentence, 150 hours of unpaid work and ordered to pay 500 compensation after admitting a racially aggravated assault on a pizza delivery driver in Pontefract who was left with a broken jaw and cheekbone. (Yorkshire Evening Post[31], 4 March 2016)

6 March: Figures reveal that 650 racist attacks, abuse and graffiti on London s rail network have been reported since 2013 with only 13 arrests made following investigations. (Evening Standard[32], 6 March 2016)

Policing and criminal justice

22 February: An investigation into UK police services by the Traveller Movement, using freedom of information laws, reveals that less than one in five record and monitor their interactions with Romany Gypsies and Irish Travellers. (Travellers Times,[33] 22 February 2016)

26 February: The Home Office publishes details of an Independent review of deaths and serious incidents in police custody . View the consultation documents here[34]. The consultation closes on 6 May 2015.

Calendar Of Racism And Resistance (26 February – 10 March 2016 ...1 March: Following a second investigation into the 2008 death of Sean Rigg in police custody in Brixton, the Independent Police Complaints Commission (IPCC) refers the case to the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) for consideration of criminal charges against five police officers. (Independent[35], 2 March 2016)

1 March: The South Yorkshire Police and Crime Commissioner (PCC) publishes the report of a review conducted by Andrew Lockley and Imam Mohammad Ismail: Policing protests in Rotherham: Towards a new approach. Download the report here[36].

2 March: The IPCC rules that a Metropolitan Police investigation into racist comments about Gypsies and Travellers on a secret Facebook group for serving and retired police officers called I ve met the Met was not thorough enough, since it had failed to contact any of the officers using the group. (Travellers Times[37], 3 March 2016)

2 March: Joint Enterprise Not Guilty by Association (JENGbA) publishes issue no.37 of its Newsletter. Download it here[38] (pdf file, 943kb).

2 March: The IPCC publishes reports on its involvement in a number of aspects related to investigations by the Metropolitan Police Service into the murder of Stephen Lawrence . View and download the reports here.Calendar Of Racism And Resistance (26 February – 10 March 2016 ...[39]

3 March: Paul Flynn, MP, tables an EDM on: Police Corruption . View the EDM here[40].

4 March: Following freedom of information requests, the Morning Star reveals that in 1976, undercover officers followed Grunwick strikers from picket lines to meetings, with detailed reports of the strikes and of anybody showing solidarity with the strikers. View and download the documents here[41]. (Morning Star[42], 4 March 2016)

7 March: The Home Office publishes the results of a consultation on reforming the IPCC, which will be renamed the Office for Police Conduct. View the policy documents here[43]. (Guardian[44], 7 March 2016)

8 March: The IPCC publishes: Police use of force: evidence from complaints, investigations and public perception. Download the report and associated documents here[45].

Calendar Of Racism And Resistance (26 February – 10 March 2016 ...8 March: An inquest jury finds that restraint and communications failures led to the death of 57-year-old Philmore Mills at Wexham Park Hospital in Slough in December 2011 after he was restrained by police and hospital staff. The coroner calls for a national review of police restraint. (Guardian[46], 8 March 2016)

9 March: The IPCC sends a file to the CPS into the death of Leon Briggs at Luton police station in November 2013 after his detention under the Mental Health Act. The CPS must consider whether to bring charges against a police detention officer and five police officers involved in his death. (Luton on Sunday, 9 March 2016)Calendar Of Racism And Resistance (26 February – 10 March 2016 ...[47]

Extreme-right

27 February: Far-right protesters, the North-West Infidels, are escorted out of Liverpool by police after attempting to hold a demonstration where they are outnumbered by anti-fascists. (Liverpool Echo[48], 27 February 2016)

1 March: A handful of Britain First protesters stage a hapless demonstration outside a mosque in East London. (Independent[49], 2 March 2016)

9 March: EDL Newark Division organiser, Chris Conry, 26, pleads guilty to racially aggravated offences and is given a 12-month supervision order and 200 hours of community service after damaging the property of Eyup Sepet in Newark. (Newark Advertiser[50], 9 March 2016)

Party politics

6 March: In local elections in Hesse, Alternative for Germany wins an average of 13.2 per cent of the vote, the anti-immigration party s best ever result in western Germany. In the small town of Leun, the neo-nazi National Democratic Party of Germany wins 17 per cent of the vote, and 14 per cent in B dingen, home to the largest refugee shelter in Hesse. (The Local[51], 7 March 2016)

6 March: The far-right Slovak National Party gains 8.6 per cent of the vote in the general election. People s Party Our Slovakia makes its first election breakthrough with 8 per cent of the vote. (Politico[52], 7 March 2016)

National Security

25 February: Laolu Opebiyi is removed from a flight to Amsterdam at Luton airport when a passenger reports him to staff and police after seeing a message about a prayer [group] on his phone. (Guardian[53], 3 March 2016)

27 February: CAGE publishes a briefing paper: Consent Denied: How PREVENT Questions Children Without Parental Involvement. Download the paper here[54].

Government policy

1 March: The Independent looks at how tax and immigration officers are among those who will be allowed to hack into people s phones when the Investigatory Powers Bill, handing over huge new powers to public bodies, becomes law. (Independent[55], 1 March 2016)

Employment

7 March: Dawn Butler, MP, tables an EDM on: 40th Anniversary of action at the Grunwick Photo Processing Plant . View it here[56].

Calendar Of Racism And Resistance (26 February – 10 March 2016 ...

Grunwick s newspaper (credit: IRR Black History Collection)

Media

23 February: Nominations open for the Refugee Festival Scotland Media Awards 2016. View details here[57].

Discrimination

1 March: A new law to regulate Islam comes into force in Austria. Muslim groups cannot accept money from foreign funders and must adopt a written code agreeing to foster a positive attitude towards the state and society . (EuroActiv[58], 3 March 2016)

6 March: A study reveals that 61 per cent of Paddy Power s 349 betting shops are concentrated in poorer parts of England with a greater ethnic mix. They are believed to deliberately target these communities, who are susceptible to the addictive play enabled by fixed odds betting terminals. (Guardian[59], 6 March 2016)

Miscellaneous

19 February: Amnesty International publishes a report: Obstacle Course: How the UK s National Contact Point handles human rights complaints under the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises, showing how multinationals are regularly let off the hook for human rights abuses. Download the report here[60].

9 March: Rhodes Must Fall campaigners hold a march for decolonisation through Oxford as part of their continuing campaign to get the Cecil Rhodes statue removed from Oriel College. (Guardian[61], 9 March 2016)

The Institute of Race Relations is precluded from expressing a corporate view: any opinions expressed are therefore those of the authors.

No comments yet.

References

  1. ^ IRR News Team (www.irr.org.uk)
  2. ^ Children & Young People Now (www.cypnow.co.uk)
  3. ^ Law Gazette (www.lawgazette.co.uk)
  4. ^ here (www.parliament.uk)
  5. ^ here (www.irr.org.uk)
  6. ^ Guardia (www.theguardian.com)
  7. ^ Independent on Sunday (www.independent.co.uk)
  8. ^ here (www.justiceinspectorates.gov.uk)
  9. ^ Guardian (www.theguardian.com)
  10. ^ Guardian (www.theguardian.com)
  11. ^ Ekathimerin (www.ekathimerini.com)
  12. ^ Guardian (www.theguardian.com)
  13. ^ Lacuna (lacuna.org.uk)
  14. ^ Passeurs d hospitalit s (passeursdhospitalites.wordpress.com)
  15. ^ here (righttoremain.org.uk)
  16. ^ here (www.apple.com)
  17. ^ Guardian (www.apple.com)
  18. ^ here (www.publications.parliament.uk)
  19. ^ here (www.apple.com)
  20. ^ BBC News (www.bbc.co.uk)
  21. ^ Guardian (www.theguardian.com)
  22. ^ Medecins Sans Frontieres (www.msf.org)
  23. ^ here (www.justiceinspectorates.gov.uk)
  24. ^ KentOnline (www.kentonline.co.uk)
  25. ^ Liverpool Echo (www.liverpoolecho.co.uk)
  26. ^ BBC News (www.bbc.co.uk)
  27. ^ Asian Image, (www.asianimage.co.uk)
  28. ^ Ekathimerini (www.ekathimerini.com)
  29. ^ Maldon and Burham Standard (www.maldonandburnhamstandard.co.uk)
  30. ^ Wigan Today (www.wigantoday.net)
  31. ^ Yorkshire Evening Post (www.yorkshireeveningpost.co.uk)
  32. ^ Evening Standard (www.standard.co.uk)
  33. ^ Travellers Times, (travellerstimes.org.uk)
  34. ^ here (www.gov.uk)
  35. ^ Independent (www.independent.co.uk)
  36. ^ here (www.southyorkshire-pcc.gov.uk)
  37. ^ Travellers Times (travellerstimes.org.uk)
  38. ^ here (www.irr.org.uk)
  39. ^ here (www.ipcc.gov.uk)
  40. ^ here (www.parliament.uk)
  41. ^ here (specialbranchfiles.uk)
  42. ^ Morning Star (morningstaronline.co.uk)
  43. ^ here (www.gov.uk)
  44. ^ Guardian (www.theguardian.com)
  45. ^ here (www.apple.com)
  46. ^ Guardian (www.theguardian.com)
  47. ^ Luton on Sunday (www.luton-dunstable.co.uk)
  48. ^ Liverpool Echo (www.liverpoolecho.co.uk)
  49. ^ Independent (www.independent.co.uk)
  50. ^ Newark Advertiser (www.apple.com)
  51. ^ The Local (www.thelocal.de)
  52. ^ Politico (www.politico.eu)
  53. ^ Guardian (www.theguardian.com)
  54. ^ here (cageuk.org)
  55. ^ Independent (www.independent.co.uk)
  56. ^ here (www.parliament.uk)
  57. ^ here (www.scottishrefugeecouncil.org.uk)
  58. ^ EuroActiv (www.euractiv.com)
  59. ^ Guardian (www.theguardian.com)
  60. ^ here (www.amnesty.org.uk)
  61. ^ Guardian (www.apple.com)

HS2 Bill Committee report has 'failed to deliver'

THE final report from the Parliamentary Committee which has been considering the Hybrid Bill authorising Phase 1 of HS2 has ‘failed to deliver’, according to critics. The Committee heard nearly 1,600 petitions against the Bill, and its final recommendations include a longer Chilterns bored tunnel with a north portal at South Heath, greater noise protection for Wendover and amendments to the discretionary compensation schemes. The Committee is also calling for a remodelled maintenance depot at Washwood Heath in Birmingham to make the most of local job opportunities and better construction arrangements at Hillingdon in west London.

The purpose of the Committee was to hear objections to particular provisions, but not to consider opposition to the Bill in principle. The Committee was chaired by MP Robert Syms, who said: “With this report on Phase One of the High Speed Rail programme, we have endeavoured to add substantial environmental, social and design benefits to the scheme, in balance with good use of public money and a viable engineering design.”

The conclusions have also been welcomed in Whitehall. Transport minister Robert Goodwill said: “We will consider carefully the recommendations in the report and respond shortly. I also recognise the demands this process has placed on petitioners. We have listened to those affected by the scheme and in many cases we have been able to make the changes they have been calling for. I am happy to say that HS2 remains firmly on schedule, and today s report marks another significant step towards getting spades in the ground for this transformational project.”

The main criticism so far has come from promoters of alternative proposals, rather than the scheme’s traditional opponents. One promoter, Lord Tony Berkeley, who backs the ‘Euston Express’ concept and also chairs the Rail Freight Group, commented: “Euston Express is disappointed that the Commons Select committee chose to ignore the inaccurate evidence given by HS2 about our Euston Express scheme. E Ex puts all HS2 and West Coast Main Line trains on to the WCML tracks from Queens Park inwards and avoids the high cost, massive disruption and demolition to streets to the west of the line and at Euston itself. Euston Express, supported by a number of rail professionals, believes that the existing station can be adapted to accommodate all these trains without taking additional land.”

The Rail Freight Group itself has expressed doubts about the implications for freight in the wake of the report, arguing that ‘HS2 and Government have displayed a lack of ambition and urgency in confirming that use of released capacity on the West Coast Main Line would benefit rail freight’.

RFG executive director Maggie Simpson said: HS2 is a vital project for rail freight growth but if we are to deliver the expected benefits for the sector, and the UK economy, we need clarity now on how released capacity will be used. We look forward to progressing discussions with HS2 and Government over coming months to ensure that a suitable framework is established giving the necessary confidence to the sector to support future investment. The report has also received a bleak reception from HSUK, which has suggested an alternative route for a high speed line north of London mainly following motorway corridors and providing a slightly lower maximum speed of 360km/h rather than the 400km/h of HS2. The group condemned the report from the Bill Committee because it had ‘failed to deliver’. A spokesman for the group said: It beggars belief that this committee, chaired incidentally by a Poole MP who has no dog in this fight, can blithely nod through a scheme that will have devastating effect on the English countryside and whose top speed is pure fantasy.

We note it is buried within the report that Euston station and Camden alone will face 17 years of disruption. We doubt very much if many Camden residents are desperate to rush to the north of England by High Speed train.

A ten-year-old with a Hornby trainset knows that these high speeds demand exacting track sophistication and that the costs rise exponentially as the proposed speeds rise. To be blunt even if HS2 ever gets built, the costs involved in delivering these high speeds would be prohibitive not that the current government will be concerned, as they will be long gone.

The other stunning failure in logic, and we lay this firmly at Chancellor George Osborne s door, is that instead of delivering businesspeople from London to the North to revitalise these economies, the opposite will happen. Northern business would simply come to London thus inflating that economy even further and creating ever larger regional discrepancies.

Meanwhile, an event is being held in Westminster today as part of the campaign by the City of Liverpool to be connected to HS2 by a 32km extension. Key figures at this event include National Infrastructure Commission chair Lord Adonis, the mayor of Liverpool Joe Anderson and chair of the Transport Select Committee Louise Ellman.

With the HS2 Hybrid Bill at the end of its Committee stage, it will now return to the Commons before being sent on to a Public Bill Committee. The Report Stage and the Third Reading will follow.

When Trucks Stop Running: Table of Contents, Preface, References …

Available in print and eBook at Springer[1], Amazon[2], and Barnes & Noble[3].

Table of Contents

1 When Trucks Stop Running, America Stops

2 Shipping Makes the World Go Round

From Sail to Steamships
The Container Ship Revolution
Ninety Percent of Global Trade Is Carried by Ships and Barges

3 Why You Should Love Trains

Trains Consume Less Fuel Yet Carry More Goods Than Trucks
A Brief History of Railroads
So Why Not Build More Railroad Tracks to Conserve Oil?
Who s Going to Pay for It?

4 Why You Should Love Trucks

5 The Oiliness of Everything: Invisible Oil and Energy Payback Time

How Energy is Used in the U.S. Economy
Energy Return on Investment or EROI
When You Do an EROI Analysis, Clearly a Low EROI Is a Problem

6 Peak Oil and Transportation

Risks and Risk Management
Peak Oil May Be Less Than 20 Years Away
Oil Field Decline Rates
Where Will Additional Oil Come From?
Other Threats to Oil Supplies for the Transportation System

7 Distributing Drop-in Fuels: The Fastest Road to Something Else

Next Stop: Service Stations
Cost to Create Drop-in Fuel
Railroads Can t Afford to Replace Their Locomotives
Conclusion: Time Is Running Out

8 Post Fossil Fuels, If Biomass Is the Answer to Everything, Is There Enough?

9 Hydrogen, the Homeopathic Energy Crisis Remedy

10 Natural Gas A Bridge Fuel to Where Exactly?

Economic Peak Natural Gas and Tight Oil?
Import Liquid Natural Gas?
Or Export LNG? America s Newfound Energy Independence
Is There Enough Natural Gas for Transportation?

11 Liquefied Coal: There Goes the Neighborhood, the Water, and the Air

The Future of CTL: How Much Diesel Could Be Made from Coal?
World and U.S. Peak Coal May Have Happened, or Will Soon

12 Who Killed the All-Electric Car?

So Why Isn t There a Better Battery? All-Electric Autos

13 Can Freight Trains Be Electrified?

D oh! Why Electrify? Diesel-Electric Locomotives Already Are
Electric and More Efficient Than All-Electric Locomotives!
Electrify with Batteries? Been There, Done That. It Didn t Work Out
Other Issues with Electrification
Europe s Freight Trains Are Inferior. Why Copy Them?
Electrify Just the Busiest Corridors

14 All-Electric Trucks Using Batteries or Overhead Wires

Battery-Electric (BEV) Trucks
WAAAAY Too Expensive
Additional Costs
Trucks Running on Overhead Wires (Catenary)

15 Overview of the Electric Grid: Herding Lightning

16 The Electric Grid Trembles When Wind and Solar Join the High Wire Act

Where Will Tomorrow s Power Come from?
There Is No Free Lunch
Intermittency
The Electric Grid Trembles When Wind & Solar Join the High Wire Act
A National Super-Grid ?
Wind and Solar Don t Replace Conventional Power, They just Add to the Blaze
How Much Intermittent Wind and Solar Penetration can the Grid Handle?

17 The Electric Blues: Energy Storage for Calm and Cloudy Days

More Wind Power and the Short-Term Storage to Make that Happen
Longer Term Storage
Storage Goal: One Day of U.S. Electricity Power Generation
Pumped Hydro Storage (PHS)
Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES)
Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) with Thermal Energy
Storage (TES)
Hydrogen
Electrochemical Batteries
Battery Energy Storage at Grid Scale Is Limited by Materials

18 Other Truck Stoppers: Mother Nature

Crumbling Concrete
Rust and Corrosion
Climate Change
The Water-Energy-Transportation Nexus
Nuclear Power Plants

19 U.S. Energy Policy: Oil Wars and Drill-Baby-Drill to Keep Autos Running?

Cars and Light Trucks Are a Huge Part of the Problem, Using 63 Percent of Transportation Oil
Energy Policy: Cars
Wars Keep the Oil Flowing

20 Where Are We Headed?

Hubbert s Curve is More Like a Cliff
Setting National Priorities for How Petroleum Is Used
Food Distribution: Putting Food on the Table
Isaac Asimov and Admiral Hyman Rickover on Energy Descent
Isaac Asimov, the Future of Humanity, 1974
Admiral Hyman Rickover, Energy Resources and Our Future, 1957
More Research on How to Get the Most Bang for the Energy Buck
Shouting into the Wind

Preface: Running on Empty

Even as a child, I was interested in oil. When I was 10 years old, Dad drove us into the hot oven of Death Valley in a dark blue car with black seats and no air-conditioning. We were being cooked alive. The gas gauge crept toward empty for what seemed like hours. I thought, for sure, we were going to run out of gas. Cockroaches may be able to survive this heat, but I am not a bug! I will never forget finally pulling into the gas station, the drinking fountain getting ever closer until, at last, I felt the delicious chill of water in my throat. Dad gassed up the car, and all was well with the world. A decade later, it looked like civilization itself was running on empty as the energy crisis of 1973 took over our lives. I was in college, and joined an alternate technology group. We watched engineers build electric cars, windmills, and convert a car to run on methanol. I got to help build a solar collector by drinking beer and painting the cans black. Saving the planet was not only going to be fun, it was going to be a party!

It wasn t long before non-OPEC oil was found and the Mideast turned their oil tap back on, and I stopped worrying about energy. Renewable power was on the way and the evil oil companies wouldn t be able to stop it. My grandfather, Professor Francis J. Pettijohn, was a seminal figure in sedimentary geology. Sedimentary basins that is where you find oil! Grandfather would try to educate me about the energy density of oil and the high hurdles blocking the path of alternate energy, but it wasn t until I read his memoir that my world view of running the planet on beer-can solar power changed. That s when I discovered that Grandpa had been a friend and mentor of M. King Hubbert, who predicted world peak oil production around the year 2000. Yikes! It was 2000. Had oil peaked yet? An Internet search led to a Pandora s box of Jay Hanson s die-off website, Yahoo group energy resources, and years later attending Association for the Study of Peak Oil conferences. I was a science writer and shifted my focus from natural history to energy-related topics, and have since then read hundreds of books and thousands of articles on energy from within the U.C. Berkeley library system. Earlier in my life, to pay the mortgage I designed and architected software systems, which I learned how to do at Electronic Data Systems after rigorous training in analysis and assembler programming working on the Medicare system, followed by a stint at Bank of America in the check processing division, and finally 22 years at American President Lines (APL). As a systems engineer, you need to have both a big picture and detailed understanding of the business framework before designing a new system. Inevitably, everything is connected.

APL was a global shipping line that also routed cargo on trucks and trains as well as helped customers with logistics, especially just-in-time freight and the fastest, most reliable delivery times possible within a continuous intermodal flow of containers across ships, trains, and trucks. APL was a leader in transportation and had the most extensive container ship system in the U.S. by the late 1960s, and partnered with rail to start the StackTrain service, containers stacked double high on railcars, tremendously increasing the efficiency of trains and reducing fuel consumption. All of the APL computer systems needed to be up 24 7, everywhere, or ships, trucks, and trains would stop as Bills of Lading, manifests, and dozens of other legal documents could not be produced. Around the clock, everything from military supplies for the 1991 Gulf War to running shoes was kept on the move with as little waiting time as possible between modes of transportation. When a new project came along, I needed to understand how long it would take and how many staff were needed to make sure an improvement didn t cost more than the money saved. This is very much like the energy returned on invested analysis performed to make sure more fossil energy isn t invested than returned on a given technology or project.

In business, this kind of analysis is essential to prevent bankruptcy. Yet when scientists find oil, coal, and natural gas production likely to peak within decades, rather than centuries, or that ethanol, solar photovoltaic, tar sands, oil shale, and other alternative energy resources have a low or even negative energy return on the energy invested, they are ignored and called pessimists, no matter how solid their findings. For every one of their peer-reviewed papers, there are thousands of positive press releases with breakthroughs that never pan out, and economists promising perpetual growth and energy independence. Optimism is more important than facts. And, it s essential for attracting investors. Civilization as we know it depends on our global transportation system of ships, trains, and trucks, all of which are fueled by oil. Since oil reserves are finite, one day supplies will be diminished to where the cost of moving freight and goods with our present oil-fueled fleet will not pencil out. We have an oil glut in 2015 and a corresponding lack of urgency. Yet, inevitably the day will come when oil supplies decline. What will we do? What are our options? That is the sobering reality this book will explore. Using my transportation knowledge and the analytical skills I learned during my 27-year career as a systems engineer, my science background (B.S. in Biology with a Chemistry and Physics minor from the University of Illinois), and what I have learned over what is now 15 years of energy research, I will look at the vulnerabilities of our current commercial transportation sector.

Everything in our homes, everything in our stores, got there on a truck at some point. Before that, many of those goods also were transported by ship and/or train. Come the day that oil is no longer abundant and affordable, will the millions of trucks that make our way of life possible be able to keep on running? I ll look at the energy scenarios that could disrupt trucking, followed by overviews of the roles and respective energy efficiency of ships, railroads, and trucks the three modes of heavy-duty transportation essential to keeping industrial civilization running. After that there are three chapters on oil: how invisible yet necessary it is, peak oil risks, and the distribution of liquid fuels. Then the viability of alternative fuels that are already commercially developed to replace oil is considered: biofuels, hydrogen, natural gas, and liquefied coal. Another way transportation might continue without a diesel fuel substitute is electrification with batteries or overhead wires, the subject of the next chapters. If electricity is to be used to power transportation, then it is important to understand the issues that need to be solved as we migrate towards a 100 % renewable electric grid as fossil fuels decline. Finally I look at other issues that will affect transportation such as climate change, at U.S. government energy policy since the first energy crisis in 1973, and then conclude with how I see the road ahead. This book is very United States-centric, because the U.S. uses the most oil of any nation, is the most dependent on oil for transportation, and will be the most affected by oil decline. America is also the military superpower that keeps oil flowing from the Middle East (or at least thinks it does), where two-thirds of the remaining oil lies, to Europe and Asia. Finally, the U.S. is where I live.

We live in the Oil Age, and as oil declines, our lives will change. Eyes wide open, this book explores the way forward.

The book would need to be many hundreds of pages to cover commercial and noncommercial energy technology as much as I d like, but more information can be found here on my website, www.energyskeptic.com.

References in the Book

Below are the references cited in the book in alphabetical order, but I did far more research than this, and the book could have easily had a reference section much longer than the book itself.

AAA. 2014. Extreme temperatures affect electric vehicle driving range, AAA says. American Automobile Association. AAPA. 2015. U.S. public port facts. American Association of Port Authorities. A AAR. 2012. Total Annual Spending: how railroads spend their money. Washington, DC: American Association of Railroads. AAR. 2013. Total annual spending. 2013 Data. How Railroads spend their money. Association of American Railroads. AAR. 2015. Freight railroad capacity and investment. AAR. 2015. Railroads and ethanol. Association of American Railroads. AASHTO. 2002. Freight-rail bottom line report, Appendix D. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. AASHTO. 2013. Waterborne freight transportation. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Aleklett, K., et al. 2012. Peeking at peak oil. Berlin: Springer. Alley, W.M., et al. 2013. Too hot to touch: The problem of high-level nuclear waste. Cambridge University Press. Anaheim. 2014. Energy storage system plan. City of Anaheim, CA: Public Utilities Department. Andrews, R. 2015. Renewable energy storage and power-to-methane. Energy Matters. http://euanmearns.com/renewable-energy-storage-and-power-to-methane/. ANL. 2002. Railroad and locomotive technology roadmap. Argonne National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy. APEC. 2011. Biofuel transportation and distribution. Singapore: Asia-pacific economic cooperation. Apple. 2015. Supplier List 2014. http://www.apple.com/supplier-responsibility/our-suppliers/. AQMD. 2015. WCC goods movement webinar. Overhead catenary system demonstration concept overview. West Coast Collaborative for South Coast Air quality management district. ASCE. 2013. Failure to act. The impact of current infrastructure investment on America s economic future. Reston: American Society of Civil Engineers. ASCE. 2013. Report card for America s infrastructure. American Society of Civil Engineers. Ashby, M.F. 2015. Materials and sustainable development, table A.14. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. Asimov, I. 1974. The future of humanity. Newark college of engineering. asimovonline.com. http://www.asimovonline.com/oldsite/future_of_humanity.html. ATA. 2015. Trucks bring life s essentials. American trucking association. http://www.trucking.org/Trucks_Bring_It.aspx. Barlett, D.L., and J.B. Steele. 2003. Why U.S. is running out of gas. Time Magazine. Barnhart, C. 2015. Personal communication. 6 Jan 2015. Barnhart, C., et al. 2013. On the importance of reducing the energetic and material demands of electrical energy storage. Energy Environment Science 2013(6): 1083 1092. Baxter, R. 2005. Energy storage: a nontechnical guide. Tulsa: PennWell. Berman, A., et al. 2015. Years not decades: proven reserves and the shale revolution. Houston: Houston Geological Society. Berman, B. 2011. Plug-and-play batteries: Trying out a quick-swap station for E.V. s. New York Times. Bernhofen, D. et al. 2013. Estimating the effects of the container revolution on world trade. Lund University, Working Paper 2013/4, Department of Economics, Lund University. Blumsack, S.A. 2006. Network topologies and transmission investment under electric-industry restructuring. Pittsburgh: Carnegie Mellon University. BNSF, et al. 2007. An evaluation of natural gas-fueled locomotives. BNSF & Union Pacific RR, Association of American Railroads, California Environmental Associates. Borenstein, S. 2013. What holds energy tech back? The infernal battery. New York: Associated Press. Borgman, D. 2007. John Deere bio-fuels white paper: agriculture, bio-fuels and striving for greater energy independence. Moline: John Deere Company. Boyd, J. 2009a. Challenges loom for electric ideas. http://www.joc.com. Boyd, J. 2009b. CSX cautious on electrification. http://www.joc.com. Bradley, M.J., et al. 2009. Setting the stage for regulation of heavy-duty vehicle fuel economy & GHG emissions. International council on clean transportation. Brandt A.R., et al. 2013. The energy efficiency of oil sands extraction: Energy return ratios from 1970 to 2010. Energy. Brogan, J.J., et al. 2013. Freight transportation modal shares: scenarios for a low-carbon future. National renewable energy laboratory. Brown, J.J. June 10, 2013. Commentary: is it only a question of when the US once again becomes a net oil exporter? Resilience.org. BTC. 2010. Armed forces, capabilities and technologies in the 21st century environmental dimensions of security. Peak oil. Bundeswehr transformation centre, future analysis branch. Calstart. 2013a. E-truck performance in cold weather. Calstart. Calstart. 2013b. I-710 project zero-emission truck commercialization study. Calstart for Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority. 4.7. Caltrain. 2008. Caltrain electrification program: environmental assessment. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. CAPP. 2015. Canadian crude oil production forecast 2014 2030. Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers. Carpenter, S. 2012. An electrifying freight solution on the 710? Siemens working on it. Los Angeles Times. Carter, J. 1977. The president s proposed energy policy. Vital Speeches of the Day, 14:418 420. Cassidy, W.B. 2014. Smith electric vehicles halts truck production. www.joc.com. Cavallo, A., et al. 1995. Cost effective seasonal storage of wind energy, 119 125. TX: Houston, CRC press. CCST. 2011. California s energy future: The view to 2050 summary report. California Council on Science and Technology. CCST. 2012. California s energy future: electricity from renewable energy and fossil fuels with carbon capture and sequestration. California: California Council on Science and Technology. CEC. 2008. Transmission technology research for renewable integration. California Energy Commission. CEC-500-2014-059. CEC. 2011. 2020 Strategic analysis of energy storage in California. California: California Energy Commission. CEC. 2014. Estimated cost of new renewable and fossil generation in California. California Energy Commission. CEC-200-2014-003-SD. CEC. 2015. California 2014 total system power in Gigawatt hours. California Energy Commission. Chesser, P. 2013. Bottomless subsidies needed to keep DOE electric truck project alive. National Legal and Policy Center. Chesser, P. 2014. Energy department revives stimulus loans as another electric vehicle comany stalls. Bankruptcy Law Review. Clark, H.K. 2004. It s time to challenge conventional wisdom. Transmission & Distribution World. Cleveland, C. J., et al. 2010. An assessment of the EROI of oil shale. Boston University. Cleveland, C.J., R. Costanza, C.A.S. Hall, R. Kaufmann. 1984. Energy and the United States economy: abiophysical perspective. Science 225: 890 897. CNA. 2009. Powering America s Defense: Energy and the Risks to National Security. Center for Naval Analyses. Cohan, P. 2012. Is A123 electric battery a waste of $263 million in government funds. Forbes. Conners, T. 2002. Products made from wood. Lexington: University of Kentucky. Connolly, T. J., et al. 1975. Report of the NSF-Stanford workshop on net energy analysis. Stanford University, Institute for Energy Studies, National Science Foundation. Cooper, M. 2013. Renaissance in reverse: Competition pushes aging U.S. Nuclear reactors to the brink of economic abandonment. South Royalton: Vermont Law School. Cottrell, F. 2009. Energy and society. The relation between energy, social change, and economic development. AuthorHouse. Courland, R. 2011. Concrete planet: The strange and fascinating story of the world s most common man-made material. Amherst: Prometheus Books. Coyne, D. 2015. World natural gas shock model. peakoilbarrel.com, July 28. Croft G.D., and T.W. Patzek. 2009. Potential for coal-to-liquids conversion in the U.S. resource base. Natural Resources Research. CRS. 2012. Funding and financing highways and public transportation, report R42877. Congressional research service. CTP. 2015. CTP members. Coalition for transportation productivity. Curley, M. 2008. Can ethanol be transported in a multi-product pipeline? Pipeline and Gas Journal 235: 34. DATC. 2014. $8-billion green energy initiative proposed for Los Angeles. Los Angeles: Duke American Transmission Co. Davidsson, S., et al. 2014. Growth curves and sustained commissioning modelling of renewable energy: Investigating resource constraints for wind energy. Energy Policy 73: 767 776. Davies, P. et al. 2000. Oil resources: a balanced assessment. Journal of the Center for Energy Petroleum & Mineral Law & Policy 6:15. Davis, S., et al. 2014. Transportation energy data book: edition 33 (chapter 2). Oak Ridge National Laboratory. den Boer, E., et al. 2013. Zero emissions trucks. CE Delft: An overview of state-of-the-art technologies and their potential. Denholm. 2013. Energy Storage in the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Slide 15. Dittmar, M. 2013. The end of cheap uranium. Science of the Total Environment 461 2: 792 798. DOE. 2002. National transmission grid study. United States Department of Energy. DOE. 2007. Basic research needs for electrical energy storage. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Electrical Energy Storage April 2 4, 2007. Office of Science, U.S. Department Of Energy. DOE. 2010. National algal biofuels technology roadmap. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. DOE. 2011. Advanced technologies for high efficiency clean vehicles. Vehicle Technologies program, United States Department of Energy. DOE. 2015. The quadrennial energy review. U.S. Department of Energy. DOE/EIA. 2015. Annual energy outlook with projections to 2040. U.S. Energy Information Administration. DOE/EPRI. 2013. Electricity storage handbook in collaboration with NRECA. USA: Sandia National Laboratories and Electric Power Research Institute. Droste-Franke, B. 2015. Review of the need for storage capacity depending on the share of renewable energies (Chap. 6). In Electrochemical energy storage for renewable sources and grid balancing. Netherlands: Elsevier. Dukes, J.S. 2003. Burning buried sunshine: human consumption of ancient solar energy. Climatic Change 61(1 2): 31 44. Eaton. 2014. Eaton drops hybrids in North America. Fleets and Fuels. EC. European Commission. 2011. Roadmap to a single European transport area. Marco Polo II. Economist. 2010. High-speed railroading. America s system of rail freight is the world s best: high-speed passenger trains could ruin it. London: The Economist. Economist. 2013. The humble hero. Containers have been more important for globalization than freer trade. The Economist, May 18. Economist. 2013. Wood: The fuel of the future. www.economist.com. ECORYS. 2009. Study on European energy-intensive industries. ECORYS SCS Group. EIA. 2011. Demand for electricity changes through the day. U.S. Energy Information Administration. http://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.cfm?id=830. EIA. 2012. Annual Energy Review. U.S. Energy Information Administration. EIA. 2013. State electricity profiles. Table 5. Electric power industry generation by primary energy source, 1990 2013. EIA. 2015. Electric power sector coal stocks. Capacity by days of burn. Energy Information Administration. EIA. 2015. Table 6.2 Coal Consumption by sector. Washington, DC: Energy Information Admin. EIA. 2015. Table 6.7B: capacity factors for utility scale generators not primarily using fossil fuels, Jan 2008 Nov 2014. U.S. Energy Information Administration. Solar data before August 2014 not available. EIA. 2015. What is the United States share of world energy consumption? U.S. Energy Information Administration. EIA. 2015a. Table 6.7.B. Capacity factors for utility scale generators not primarily using fossil fuels. U.S. Energy Information Administration. EIA. 2015b. Proposed clean power plan would accelerate renewable additions and coal plant retirements. U.S. Energy Information Administration. EPA. 2015. Inventory of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions and sinks: 1990 2013 Tables ES-6, A-116, A-117. U.S. Environmental protection agency. Eurostat. 2015. Freight transport statistics. Luxembourg: Eurostat. EWG. 2013. Fossil and nuclear fuels The supply outlook. Energy Watch Group. http://energywatchgroup.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/EWG-update2013_long_18_03_2013up1.pdf. Fagan, B. 2000. The little ice age. How climate made history 1300 1850. Basic books. Farrell, A.E., R.J. Plevin, B.T. Turner, A.D. Jones, M. O Hare, and D.M. Kammen. 2006. Ethanol can contribute to energy and environmental goals. Science 311: 506 508. FDOT. 2002. Analysis of freight movement mode choice factors. Florida department of transportation. FHWA. Federal highway administration. 2000. Addendum to the 1997 Federal highway cost allocation study final report. Federal highway administration. Forbes, K.F., et al. 2012. Are policies to encourage wind energy predicated on a misleading statistic? The Electricity Journal 25(3): 42 54. Forbis, G. 2008. Rising fuel prices. U.S. department of transportation. FRA. 2009. Federal railroad administration comparative evaluation of rail and truck fuel efficiency on competitive corridors. Washington, DC: ICF International for U.S. Department of Transportation. Friedemann, A. 2011. Why do political, economic, and scientific leaders deny peak oil and climate change? energyskeptic.com. Fuller, T. 2006. China trade unbalances shipping. New York Times. GAO. 2007. Crude oil. Uncertainty about future oil supply makes it important to develop a strategy for addressing a peak and Decline in Oil Production. U.S. Government Accountability Office. GAO. 2011. Biofuels: challenges to the transportation, sale, and use of intermediate ethanol blends. Washington, DC: Government Accountability Office. Gates, B. 2010. Innovating to zero! TED Talks. http://www.ted.com/talks/bill_gates/transcript?language=en. GBHL. 2007 2008. The Economics of Renewable Energy. House of Lords Select Committee on Economic Affairs 4th Report, Great Britain. GBHP. 2014. Intermittent Electricity Generation. Great Britain Houses of Parliament, office of science & technology PostNote number 464. Goldstein, H. 2007. Joules, BTUs, Quads-let s call the whole thing off. IEEE spectrum. Gruver, M. 2014. Renewable energy plan hinges on huge Utah caverns. New York: Associated Press. Guezuraga, B. 2012. Life cycle assessment of two different 2 MW class wind turbines. Renewable Energy 37:37 44. 1538 long tons/2 MW = 1722 short tons. Guilford, M., C.A.S. Hall, P. O Conner, and C.J. Cleveland. 2011. A new long term assessment of EROI for U.S. oil and gas: sustainability: Special issue on EROI, 1866 1887. Hagens, N. 2007. Old sunlight versus ancient sunlight. An analysis of home heating and wood. http://www.theoildrum.com. Hall, C.A.S., and C. King. 2011. Relating financial and energy return on investment: Sustainability: Special Issue on EROI, 1810 1832. Hall, C.A.S., and C.J. Cleveland. 1981. Petroleum drilling and production in the United States: Yield per effort and net energy analysis. Science 211: 576 579. Hall, C.A.S., C. Cleveland, and M. Berger. 1981. Energy return on investment for United States Petroleum, Coal and Uranium. In Energy and Ecological Modeling, ed. Werner Mitsch. Symp. Proc., Elsevier Publishing Co. Hall, C.A.S., J.G. Lambert, and S.B. Balogh. 2014. EROI of different fuels and the implications for society. Energy Policy Energy Policy 64: 141 151. Hallock, J. L., Jr, et al. 2014. Forecasting the limits to the availability and diversity of global conventional oil supply: validation. Energy 64:130 153. Halper, E. 2013. Power struggle: Green energy versus a grid that s not ready. California: Los Angeles Times. Hamilton, A., S.B. Balogh, A. Maxwell, and C.A.S. Hall. 2013. Efficiency of edible agriculture in Canada and the U.S. over the past 3 and 4 decades. Energies 6: 1764 1793. Hamilton, J.D. 2013. Historical Oil Shocks in Routledge handbook of major events of economic history. Routledge. Hammerschlag, R. 2006. Ethanol s energy return on investment: a survey of the literature 1990-present. Environmental Science and Technology 40: 1744 1750. Hansen, F.D., et al. 2011. Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste. Sandia National Laboratories. Hassenzahl, W.V. ed. 1981. Mechanical, thermal, and chemical storage of energy. London: Hutchinson Ross. Hatfield, J. et al. 2014. Chapter 6: agriculture climate change impacts in the United States. The Third National Climate Assessment. 150 174. http://nca2014.globalchange.gov/report/sectors/agriculture. HDT. 2014. 121 ways to save fuel. http://www.truckinginfo.com. Heinberg, R. 2013. Snake Oil: How fracking s false promise of plenty imperils our future. California: Post Carbon. Heinberg, R., and D. Fridley. 2010. The end of cheap coal. Nature 468:367 369. Hillebrand, D. 2012. Advanced vehicle technologies; outlook for electrics, internal combustion, and alternate fuels. USA: Argonne National Laboratory. Hirsch, H., et al. 2005. Nuclear reactor hazards ongoing dangers of operating nuclear technology in the 21st century. Amsterdam: Greenpeace International. Hirsch, J. 2015. 253 million cars and trucks on U.S. roads; average age is 11.4 years. Los Angeles: The Los Angeles Times. Hirsch, R. L., et al. 2005. Peaking of world oil production: impacts, mitigation, & risk management. Department of energy. Hirsch, R.L., 2008. Mitigation of maximum world oil production: shortage scenarios. Energy Policy 36(2):881 889. Hiscox, G. 1901. Horseless vehicles, automobiles, motor cycles. New York: Norman Henley & Co. Hjort, M., et al. 2008. Road wear from heavy vehicles an overview. NVF committee Vehicles and Transports. Hoffrichter, A. 2012. Well-to-wheel analysis for electric, diesel and hydrogen traction for railways. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 17(1):28 34. Holcomb, R.D. 2006. When trucks stop, America stops. American Trucking Association. Homeland Security. 2011. Dams and energy sectors interdependency study. U.S. Department of Energy and Homeland Security. H k, M. 2010. Trends in U.S. recoverable coal supply estimates and future production outlooks (Gompertz curve p. 20). Natural Resources Research 19(3): 189 208. Hook, M., et al. 2009. Giant oil field decline rates and their influence on world oil production. Energy Policy 37(6):2262 2272. H k, M., et al. 2009. Historical trends in American coal production and a possible future outlook. International Journal of Coal Geology 78(3):201 216. H k, M., et al. 2010. Validity of the fossil fuel production outlooks in the IPCC Emission Scenarios. Natural Resources Research, (19/2): 63 81. H k, M., et al. 2010a. Global coal production outlooks based on a logistic model. Fuel 89: 3546 3558. H k, M., et al. 2010b. A review on coal-to-liquid fuels and its coal consumption (Fig. 3). International Journal of Energy Research 34: 848 864. H k, M., et al. 2010c. Validity of the fossil fuel production outlooks in the IPCC emission scenarios. Natural Resources Research 19(2): 63 81. H k, M., et al. 2014. Hydrocarbon liquefaction: viability as a peak oil mitigation strategy. Philosophical Transactions. Series A: Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Science 372. House 108-23. 2003. Implications of power blackouts for the nation s cyber-security and critical infrastructure protection. House of Representatives hearing, Sept 4. House 109-3. 2005. Improving the nation s energy security: Can cars and trucks be made more fuel efficient? U.S. House of Representatives. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-109hhrg98561/pdf/CHRG-109hhrg98561.pdf. House 111-20. 2010. Not going away: America s energy security, jobs and climate challenges. House of Representatives Hearing. House 112-159. 2012. The American energy initiative part 23: A focus on Alternative Fuels and vehicles. House of Representatives. House 112-176. 2012. The American energy initiative part 28: a focus on the outlook for achieving North American energy independence within the decade. U.S. House of Representatives hearing. House 112-4. 2011. The effects of Middle East events on U.S. energy markets. U.S. House of Representatives hearing. House 113-1. 2013. American energy security & innovation: an assessment of North America s energy resources. U.S. House of Representatives hearing. House 113-12. 2013. American energy security and innovation. The role of a diverse electricity generation portfolio. House of Representatives, Committee on Energy and Commerce. House 113-2. 2013. American energy outlook: technology market and policy drivers. U.S. House of Representatives hearing. House 113-36. 2013. Perspectives from users of the nation s freight system. House of representatives. House, K.Z. 2009. The limits of energy storage technology. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Houseman, D. et al. 2013. Solar load cycles and storage requirements. IEEE Smartgrid. Houseman, D. et al. 2014. Understanding the maximum storage requirements for the grid. Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference. IEEE PES. Hovorka, S. 2009. Characterization of bedded salt for storage caverns: case study from the Midland Basin. Tx: Texas Bureau of Economic Geology. Hughes, J. D. 2014. Drilling deeper. Post carbon institute. Hughes, J. David. 2014. Drilling Deeper. A reality check on U.S. government forecasts for a lasting tight oil & Shale gas boom. Part 1: Executive Summary. California: Post Carbon Institute. Iden, M. 2009. Engines of change. In Freight locomotives and fuels of the future. USA: Northwestern University Transportation Center. Iden, M.E. 2014. Battery storage of propulsion-energy for locomotives. Proceedings of the 2014 Joint Rail Conference. IEA. 2008. World energy outlook 2008, 45. International Energy Agency. IEA. 2010. World energy outlook 2010, 116. International Energy Agency. IEA. 2011a. IEA harnessing variable renewables: a guide to the balancing challenge. Paris: International Energy Agency. IEA. 2011b. Solar energy perspectives. Paris: International Energy Agency. IEA. 2013. Wind task 25 Design and operation of power systems with large amounts of wind power. Phase two 2009 2011. International Energy Agency. IEA. 2013. World energy outlook 2013 executive summary. International Energy Agency. IEC. 2015. Geography and wind. Iowa Energy Center. IMO. 2009. Second IMO GHG Study. International Maritime Organization. Inman, M. 2014. Natural gas: The fracking fallacy. Nature 516: 28 30. InsideEVs. 2015. Monthly plug-in sales scorecard. www.Insideevs.com. James, K. 2011. Evaluating the feasibility of electrified rail at the port of LA/LB. Metrans Transportation Center project 07-323306. Jordan, D.C., et al. 2013. Photovoltaic degradation rates An analytical review. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications 21: 12 29. Keith, K. 2013. Maintaining a track record of success. Expanding rail infrastructure to accommodate growth in agriculture and other sectors. TRC Consulting. Kerr, R. 2011. Peak oil production may already be here. Science 331:1510 11. Kintner-Meyer, M., et al. 2012. National assessment of energy storage for grid balancing and arbitrage: phase 1, WECC. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Energy. Klee, G. 1991. Conservation of natural resources. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall. Kong, Z., et al. 2015. EROI analysis for direct coal liquefaction without and with CCS: The case of the Shenhua DCL Project in China. Energies 8(2): 786 807. Konikow, L.F. 2013. Groundwater depletion in the United States (1900 2008): U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2013-5079. Krauss, C. 2012. After the Boom in natural gas. New York Times, October 20. Lambert, J G., C.A.S. Hall, et al. 2014. Energy, EROI and quality of life. Energy Policy 64:153 167. Lerner, E. 2014. What s wrong with the electric grid? American Institute of Physics. LeVine, S. 2015. The Powerhouse: Inside the Invention of a Battery to Save the World Viking. Loder, A. 2015a. Shale drillers feast on junk debt to stay on treadmill. Bloomberg, April 30. Loder, A. 2015b. The Shale industry could be swallowed by its own debt. Bloomberg.com, June 18. Long, J. 2011. Piecemeal cuts won t add up to radical reductions. Nature 478. Lowenthal, R. 2008. On the need for public charging. Coulomb Technologies presentation Plugin 2008 Conference. San Jose, CA. Luppens, J.A., et al. 2009. Coal resource availability, recoverability, and economic evaluantions in the U.S. A summary. U.S. Geological Survey. Luppens, J.A., et al., 2008. Assessment of coal geology, resources, and reserves in the Gillette coalfield, Powder River basin, Wyoming. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1202/. Macalister, T. 2009. Key oil figures were distorted by US pressure, says whistleblower. The Guardian. Makansi, J. 2007. Lights out: the electricity crisis, the global economy, and what it means to you. Wiley. McKinnon, A. 2004. Life without Lorries: The impact of a temporary disruption of road freight transport in the UK. Commercial motor magazine, Nov. McPherson, J.M. 1988. The battle cry of freedom: The civil war era. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Mearns, E. 2008. The global energy crisis and its role in the pending collapse of the global economy. Presentation to the Royal Society of Chemists, Aberdeen, Scotland. See http://www.theoildrum.com/node/4712 Melaina, M.W. et al. 2013. Alternative fuel infrastructure expansion: costs, resources, production capacity, and retail availability for low-carbon scenarios. Colorado: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Mele, J. May 1. 2009. Truck efficiency: More than MPG. FleetOwner.com. Metrolinx. 2010. GO Electrification Study Final Report (Toronto Region). Mills, M.J. 2008. Massive global ozone loss predicted following regional nuclear conflict. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105(14): 5307 5312. Mohr, S.H., et al. 2009. Forecasting coal production until 2100. Fuel 88: 2059 2067. Montgomery, D.R. 2007. Dirt: the erosion of civilizations. California: University of California Press. Morgan, M., et al. 2011. Extreme events. California Energy Commission. CEC-500-2013-031. Moskvitch, K. 2015. Will falling oil prices kill wind and solar power? USA: Scientific American. MQ. 2003. The Mayflower Quarterly. The General Society of Mayflower Descendants. 69: 4. Murphy, D. J., and C.A.S. Hall. 2010. Year in review-EROI or energy return on (energy) invested. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Special Issue Ecological Economics Reviews 1185: 102 118. Murphy, D.J., and C.A.S. Hall. 2011. Energy return on investment, peak oil, and the end of economic growth. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Special Issue on Ecological Economics 1219: 52 72. Murphy, D.J., C. Hall, M. Dale, and C. Cleveland. 2011. Order from chaos: a preliminary protocol for determining the EROI of fuels. Sustainability 3(10):1888 1907. Murphy, D.J., C.A.S. Hall, and B. Powers. 2011. New perspectives on the energy return on (energy) investment (EROI) of corn ethanol. Environment, Development and Sustainability 12:179 202. Murphy, David J. 2013. The implications of the declining energy return on investment of oil production. Philosophical transactions of the royal society A: mathematical, physical and engineering sciences 372. Murray, J., et al. 2012. Oil s tipping point has passed. Nature 481:43 4. NACS. 2013. The U.S. Petroleum Industry: statistics, definitions. National Association of Convenience Stores. NAE. 2012. National Academy of Engineering. Building the U.S. Battery Industry for Electric Drive Vehicles: Summary of a Symposium. National Research Council. Nagourney, A. 2014. High-speed train in California is caught in a political storm. New York: New York Times. NAS. 2008. Sources and uses: what you need to know about energy. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences. http://www.nap.edu/reports/energy/sources.html. National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, National Academy of Engineering. U.S. Commerce. 2012. U.S., Fixed Assets tables 1.1, 2.1, 3.1s and 7.1b. Washington, DC: Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis. Navigant. 2013. U.S. offshore wind manufacturing and supply chain development. Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy. NCRS. 2013. Summary report 2010 National resources Inventory. Natural Resources Conservation Service, Iowa State University, U.S. Department of Agricuture. NEB. 2013. Canada s energy future, energy supply and demand to 2035. Government of Canada National Energy Board. NETL. 2012a. Role of alternative energy sources: Hydropower technology assessment. National Energy Technology Laboratory. http://netl.doe.gov/File%20Library/Research/Energy%20Analysis/Publications/DOE-NETL-2012-1519.pdf. NETL. 2012b. Impact of load following on power plant cost and performance. National Energy Technology Laboratory. http://netl.doe.gov/File%20Library/Research/Energy%20Analysis/Publications/NETL-DOE-2013-1592-Rev1_20121010.pdf. Newby, J. 2011. Oil Crunch (Fatih Birol). Catalyst. ABC TV. NFRCP. 2010. North American marine highways. National Cooperative Freight Research Program, National Academies Press. Nikiforuk, A. 2013. Solar dreams, Spanish realities. TheTyee.ca. NPC. 2007. Hydrocarbon liquids, Chap. 11. Hard truths: Facing the hard truths about energy. National Petroleum Council. NPC. 2012. Chapter 13, Electric, advancing technology for America s transportation future. Washington, DC: National Petroleum Council. NPC. 2012. Chapter 4: technology. In Advancing technology for America s transportation future. Washington DC: National Petroleum Council. NPC. 2012. Topic paper 2. Rail transportation demand. National petroleum council. NPC. 2015. Arctic potential: realizing the promise of U.S. arctic oil and gas resources. National Petroleum Council. NRC. 2006. Trends in oil supply and demand. Potential for peaking of conventional oil production and mitigation options. National Research Council. NRC. 2007. Coal. Research and development to support national energy policy. Washington (DC): National Academies Press. NRC. 2009. America s energy future: technology and transformation 2009. Washington, DC: NRC. 2009. Liquid transportation fuels from coal and biomass: Technological status, costs, and environmental impacts. Washington (DC): National Academies Press. NRC. 2010. Technologies and approaches to reducing the fuel consumption of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles. National Academies Press. NRC. 2012. Sustainable development of algal biofuels. Washington DC: National Academies Press, National Research Council. NRC. 2012. Terrorism and the electric power delivery system. Washington, DC: National Research Council, National Academies Press. NRC. 2013. An evaluation of the U.S. Department of energy s marine and hydrokinetic resource assessments. National Research Council. Washington: National Academies Press. NRC. 2013. Transitions to alternative vehicles and fuels. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. NRC. 2014. Reducing the fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles. Phase Two: National Academies Press. NRC. 2014. The Nexus of biofuels, climate change, and human health. Washington DC: National Academy of Sciences. NRC. 2015. Cost, effectiveness and deployment of fuel economy tech for light-duty vehicles, 613. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences. NRC. 2015. Overcoming barriers to deployment of plug-in electric vehicles. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. NRC. 2015. Review of the 21st century truck partnership, 3rd report. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. NRC. 2015. TRB special report 315: Funding and managing the U.S. inland waterways system: What policy makers need to know. National Research Council, National Academies Press. NREL. 2009. Land-use requirements of modern wind power plants in the United States. Golden:National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL. 2010. Assessment of offshore wind energy resources for the United States. Golden: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL. 2010. Western wind and solar integration study. Golden: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL. 2012. Geothermal power and interconnection: The economics of getting to market. Golden: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL. 2012. U.S. renewable energy technical potentials: A GIS-Based analysis. Golden: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL. 2013. Beyond renewable portfolio standards: An assessment of regional supply and demand conditions affecting the future of renewable energy in the west. Golden: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL. 2013. Concentrating solar power projects. Colorado: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL. 2014. California-Wyoming grid integration study phase 1-economic analysis. Colorado: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL. 2014. Western wind and solar integration study phase 3. Frequency response and transient stability. Golden: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy15osti/62906.pdf. O Grady, E. 2008. Luminant seeks new reactor. London: Reuters. OXFAM. 2001. Cuba: Going against the grain. OXFAM America. Painter, T. 2006. Prospects for dynamic brake energy recovery on north american freight locomotives. JRC2006-94051, ASME Joint Rail Conference. Palmer, G. 2013. Household solar photovoltaics: Supplier of marginal abatement, or primary source of low-emission power? Sustainability 5(4): 1406 1442. doi:10.3390/su5041406. Palo Alto. 2014. Do not set energy storage procurement targets. City council staff report, City of Palo Alto, California. Parnell, J. 2013. Spain s government accused of killing solar market. PVtech. Parnell, J. 2013. Spanish government facing court action over cuts to solar support. PVTech. Parry, I., et al. 2014. Getting energy prices right. International monetary fund. Pate, D. 2004. May rains cause severe erosion in Iowa. Washington DC: Natural Resources Conservation Service. Patzek, T. 2005. The United States of America Meets the Planet Earth. National Press Club Conference, Washington, D.C. Patzek, T. 2012. Oil in the Arctic. LifeItself blog. Patzek, T. W. et al. 2010. A global coal production forecast with multi-Hubbert cycle analysis. Energy 35: 3109 22. Patzek, T.W. et al. 2009. Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the United States-Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis. Natural Resources Research 18(3). Pearce, F. 2012. The land grabbers: the new fight over who owns the earth. Beacon Press. Perlin, J. 2005. Forest journey. The story of wood and civilization. New York: Countryman Press. Pernicka, J. 2010. Class ALP-45DP locomotive: railvolution, vol 10. Pesaran A., et al. 2013. Addressing the impact of temperature extremes on large format Li-Ion batteries for vehicle applications. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Pimentel, D., et al. 2005. Ethanol production using corn, switchgrass, and wood; biodiesel production using soybean and sunflower. Natural Resources Research 14: 65 76. Plugincars. 2015. Cars. plugincars.com. http://www.plugincars.com/cars?field_isphev_value_many_to_one=pure+electric. PNNL. 2013. National assessment of energy storage for grid balancing and arbitrage: phase II, vol 2: cost and performance characterization. Washington, DC: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Powers, B. 2013. Cold, hungry and in the dark: Exploding the natural gas supply myth. Gabriola: New Society Publishers. Prieto, P., C.A.S. Hall. 2013. Spain s photovoltaic revolution. NY: Springer. Rapier, R. 2015. Cellulosic ethanol is going backwards. Energy trends insider. Raugei, M. 2013. Comments on Energy intensities, EROIs (energy returned on invested), and energy payback times of electricity generating power plants Making clear of quite some confusion. Energy 59: 781 782. Raugei, M., et al. 2012. The energy return on energy investment (EROI) of photovoltaics: methodology and comparisons with fossil fuel life cycles. Energy Policy. Raugei, M., et al. 2015. Rebuttal: Comments on Energy intensities, EROIs (energy returned on invested), and energy payback times of electricity generating power plants Making clear of quite some confusion . Energy 82: 1088 1091. Reaver, G.F., et al. 2014. Imminence of peak in US coal production and overestimation of reserves. International Journal of Coal Geology 131: 90 105. Richard, T. 2010. Challenges in scaling up biofuels infrastructure. Science 329:793 796. Rickover, H.G. 1957. Energy resources and our future. In Scientific assembly of the Minnestoa state medical association. http://www.resilience.org/stories/2006-12-02/energy-resources-andour-future-remarks-admiral-hyman-rickover-delivered-1957. Ruth, M. et al. 2013. Projected biomass utilization for fuels and power in a mature market. Colorado: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Rutledge, D. 2011. Estimating long-term world coal production with logit and probit transforms. International Journal of Coal Geology 85: 23 33. Rutledge, D. 2014. Coal and the IPCC: Energy matters blog. http://euanmearns.com/coal-and-theipcc/. Sahagun, L. May 21, 2014. U.S. officials cut recoverable Monterey Shale oil by 96 %. Los Angeles Times. SARHC. 2009. A week without truck transport. Four Regions in Sweden 2009. Swedish Association of Road Haulage Companies. SBC. 2013. Electricity storage. SBC Energy Institute. SBC. 2014. Hydrogen-based energy conversion. California: SBC Energy Institute. SCAG. 2008. Regional transportation plan: making the connections. California: Southern California Association of Governments. SCAG. 2012. Analysis of freight rail electrification in the SCAG region. In Comprehensive regional goods movement plan and implementation strategy. California: Southern California Association of governments. Schwartz, M. 2014. Net energy analysis should become a standard policy tool, Stanford scientists say. Stanford University. http://news.stanford.edu/news/2014/june/net-energy-analysis-062414.html. SCRRA. 1992. Southern California Accelerated Rail Electrification Program Report. Southern California Regional Rail Authority converted to 2011 dollars with USACE Civil Works Construction Cost Index System, March 2011. Senate 109-412. 2006. Energy independence. U.S. Senate Hearing, March 7. Senate 110-6. 2007. Geopolitics of oil. U.S. Senate Hearing. Senate 111-78. 2009. Energy Security: Historical perspectives and modern challenges. U.S.Senate hearing. Senate 112-25. 2011. Hydropower. U.S. Senate hearing. Senate 113-1. 2013. Natural gas resources. U.S. Senate Hearing, February 12. Senate 113-355. 2014. Crude oil exports. U.S. Senate Hearing, January 30. Senate S6373. 2013. Remembering Randy Udall. In Congressional record, Senate, S6373. Udall is a co-founder of the Association for the Study of Peak Oil-USA. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CREC-2013-09-11/pdf/CREC-2013-09-11-pt1-PgS6373.pdf. Service, R. 2011. Getting there: better batteries. Science 332: 1494 1496. Shiau, C.-S.N., et al. 2009. Impact of battery weight and charging patterns on the economic and environmental benefits of plug-in hybrid vehicles. Energy Policy 37: 2653 2663. Sivak, M, et al. 2015. On-road fuel economy of vehicles in the United States: 1923 2013. University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. Smil, V. 2010. Energy myths and realities. Washington, DC: The AEI Press. Smil, V. 2013. Prime movers of globalization. In The history and impact of diesel engines and gas turbines. Massachusetts: The MIT Press. Smith, R.F. et al. 2008. Electrification of the freight train network from the ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach to the Inland Empire. California: California Department of Transportation. Soderbergh, B., et al. 2007. A crash programme scenario for the Canadian oil sands industry. Energy Policy 35. Spilman, R. 2012. Are modern ships slower than sailing ships? Probably not. The old salt blog. Sept 17. Stopford, M. 2010. How shipping has changed the world and the social impact of shipping. Global Maritime Environmental Congress. Swift, E. 2012. The big roads. Mariner books. TIAX LLC. 2010. Demonstration of a Liquid Natural Gas Fueled Switcher Locomotive at Pacific Harbor Line, Inc, prepared for the Port of Long Beach. Tinker, S.W. 2014. Role of shale gas in North American and global power markets. Slide 45 Forecast vs. Actual. University of Texas, Bureau of Economic Geology. Tolliver, D., et al. 2013. Analysis of railroad energy efficiency in the United States. North Dakota State University. Truckinginfo. 2013. Navistar Sells RV Business, Drops eStar Van as Part of Its Turnaround Plan. trucking.info. TTI. 2015. Annual urban mobility scorecard 2015. Texas A&M transportation institute. Turrentine, T.S. et al. 2005. Automotive fuel economy in the purchase and use decisions of households. 84th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board. U.S. Census. 2000. Annual projections of the total resident population as of July 1: Middle, lowest, highest, and zero international migration series, 1999 2100. http://www.census.gov/population/projections/files/natproj/summary/np-t1.txt. U.S. Census. 2012. Table 1085. Waterborne commerce by type of commodity: 1995 to 2009. U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States. Udall, R. 2005. The illusive bonanza: oil shale in Colorado pulling the sword from the stone . ASPO-USA. UNCTAD. 2012. Review of maritime transport. United Nations. Urbina, I. 2011. Insiders sound an alarm amid a natural gas rush. New York Times, June 25. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/26/us/26gas.html?src=tptw&_r=3&. USDA. 2012. Farm demographics. Census of agriculture. USDOE. 2002. Railroad and locomotive technology roadmap. Washington, DC: Argonne National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy. USDOE. U.S. 2008. Department of energy. Transportation energy data book. USDOT. 2009. Comparative evaluation of rail and truck fuel efficiency on competitive corridors. U.S. department of transportation. USDOT. 2010. National rail plan. Moving forward. Federal railroad administration. U.S. department of transportation. USDOT. 2012. Table 4 17: class 1 rail freight fuel consumption and travel. U.S. Department of transportation. USDOT. 2014. U.S. Freight on the move: highlights from the 2012 commodity flow survey preliminary data. USDOT. U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000. Addendum to the 1997 Federal highway cost allocation study. Federal highway administration. USGAO. 2007. Crude oil. Uncertainty about future oil supply makes it important to develop a strategy for addressing a peak and decline in oil production. United States Government Accountability Office. USGAO. U.S. Government Accountability Office. 2008. Freight transportation: national policy and strategies can help improve freight mobility. GAO-08-287. USGS. 2011. Wind energy in the United States and materials required for the land-based wind turbine industry from 2010 2030 (Table 5 current generation). U.S. Geological Survey. http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2011/5036/sir2011-5036.pdf. Van Noorden, R. 2014a. The rechargeable revolution: a better battery. Nature 507:26 28. Van Noorden, R. 2014b. Nature podcast Backchat April 2015 on Lin, M-.C.: an ultrafast rechargeable aluminium-ion battery. Nature 520:324 328. Vassallo, J. 2005. Nature or nurture why do railroads carry greater freight share in the United States than in Europe. Cambridge: Harvard University. Vazquez, S., et al. 2010. Energy storage systems for transport and grid applications. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 57(12): 3884. Vigrass, J.W. 2007. A proposed national system of interstate and defense railroads. National Surface Transportation policy and revenue study commission. Vitins, J. 2011. Dual mode and new diesel locomotive developments. Berlin: Bombardier Transportation. Voegele, E. 2011. Steaming ahead to a better fuel. Biodiesel Magazine 8:30 35. Wagner, F.T., et al. 2010. Electrochemistry and the future of the automobile. Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 1: 2204 2219. Wald, M.L. 2008. Wind energy bumps into power grid s limits. New York: New York Times. Wald, M.L. 2014. How grid efficiency went south. New York: New York Times. Waldman, J. 2015. Rust. The longest war. Simon & Schuster. Weissbach, D., et al. 2014. Reply on Comments on Energy intensities, EROIs (energy returned on invested), and energy payback times of electricity generating power plants Making clear of quite some confusion . Energy 68: 1004 1006. Weissbach, D., G. Ruprecht, A. Huke, K. Czerski, S. Gottlieb, and A. Hussein. 2013. Energy intensities, EROIs, and energy payback times of electricity generating power plants. Energy 52:1, 210 221. Welle, R. 2010. Stone storage. 4th CSP Summit, San Francisco. Williams, J.H., et al. 2002. Fuel and famine: Rural energy crisis in the DPRK. Asian Perspective 26(1): 111 140. Willis, H., et al. 2013. Aging power delivery infrastructures. 2nd Edition, CRC Press. Wysocki, B. et al. 2006. Just-in-time inventories make U.S. vulnerable in a pandemic. Wall Street Journal. Yergin, D., et al. 2003. The next prize. Foreign Affairs, Council on Foreign Relations. https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/2003-11-01/next-prize. Youngs, H., and C.R. Somerville. 2013. California s energy future: the potential for biofuels. California: California Council on Science and Technology. Zittel, W, et al. 2013. Fossil and nuclear fuels. Energy Watch Group Zu, C.-X., et al. 2011. Thermodynamic analysis on energy densities of batteries. Energy and Environmental Science 4: 2614 2624.

Additional material read but not cited in the book:

IN PROGRESS

References

  1. ^ Springer (www.springer.com)
  2. ^ Amazon (www.amazon.com)
  3. ^ Barnes & Noble (www.barnesandnoble.com)

1 2 3 14